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Folia Microbiologica

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 291–318 | Cite as

Gamma herpesviruses: Pathogenesis of infection and cell signaling

  • J. Rajčáni
  • M. Kúdelová
Review

Abstract

Altered cell signaling is the molecular basis for cell proliferation occurring in association with several gamma herpesvirus infections. Three gamma herpesviruses, namely EBV/HHV-4, KSHV/HHV-8 and the MHV-68 (and/or MHV-72) and their unusual cell-pirated gene products are discussed in this respect. The EBV, KSHV as well as the MHV DNA may persist lifelong in an episomal form in the host carrier cells (mainly in lymphocytes but also in macrophages, in non-hornifying squamous epithelium and/or in blood vessel endothelial cells). Under conditions of extremely limited transcription, the EBV-infected cells express EBNA1 (EB nuclear antigen 1), the KSHV infected cells express LANA1 (latent nuclear antigen 1), while the MHV DNA carrier cells express the latency-associated protein M2. With the full set of latency-associated proteins expressed, EBV carrier cells synthesize additional EBNAs and at least one LMP (latent membrane protein 1). The latent KSHV carrier cells, in addition to LANA1, may express a viral cyclin, a viral Fas-DD-like ICE inhibitor protein (vFLIP) and a virus-specific transformation protein called kaposin (K12). In MHV latency with a wide expression of latency-associated proteins, the carrier cells express a LANA analogue (ORF73), the M3 protein, the K3/IE (immediate early) proteins and M11/bcl-2 homologue proteins. During the period of limited gene expression, the latency-associated proteins serve mainly for the maintenance of the latent episomal DNA (a typical example is EBNA1). In contrast, during latency with a broader spectrum gene expression, the virus-encoded products activate transcription of otherwise silenced cellular genes, which leads to the synthesis of enzymes capable of promoting not only viral but also cellular DNA replication. Thus, the latency-associated proteins block apoptosis and drive host cells towards division and immortalization. Proliferation of hemopoetic cells, which had become gamma herpesvirus DNA carriers, can be initiated and strongly enhanced in the presence of inflammatory cytokines and by virus-encoded analogues of interleukins, chemokines and IFN regulator proteins. At early stages of tumor formation, many proliferating hemopoetic and/or endothelium cells, which had became transcriptionally active under the influence of chemokines and cytokines, may not yet be infected. In contrast, at later stages of oncogenesis, the virus-encoded proteins, inducing false signaling and activating the proliferation pathways, bring the previously infected cells into full transformation burst.

Keywords

NASH Latent Membrane Protein Immediate Early Gamma Herpesvirus Lytic Virus Replication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency virus

AM

adherent mononuclear (cells)

Apo1

apoptosis receptor 1 (Fas receptor)

ART

activator of replication and transcription

BL

Burkitt’s lymphoma

BRLF

BamHI R leftward fragment (EBV DNA)

BZLF

BamHI Z leftward fragment (EBV DNA)

CD

cluster of differentiation (leukocyte marker)

cdk

cyclin-dependent kinases

c-jun

cellular ju-nana (japanese expression for 17 sarcoma virus)

CMV

cvtomegalovirus

CNS

centraf nervous system

CREB

(cAMP-response element)-binding protein

CTAR

C-terminal activator regions

DD

death domain

DED

death effector domain

DS

dyad symmetry (EBV DNA region)

EBER

Epstein—Barr encoded nonpolyadenylated RNA

EBNA

Epstein—Barr nuclear antigen

EBV

Epstein—Barr virus

FADD

Fas receptor-associated death domain

Fas

FS-7 associated cell surface (protein)

FGARAT

N-formylglycinamide ribotide aminotransferase

FLICE

FADD-like interleukin converting enzyme inhibitor protein (vFLIP)

FR

family of repeats

GAS

gamma-activated sequence

GPCR

G-protein coupled receptor

HAX-1

HS-1 associated protein X-1

HHV

human herpesvirus

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

HL

Hodgkin’s lymphoma

HLA

human leukocyte antigen

HS-1

hemopoetic specific protein 1

HSV-1

herpes simplex virus 1

HVS

herpesvirus saimiri

ICE

interleukin-1β converting enzyme

IE

immediate early proteins

IFN

interferon

IKK

inactivator kinases

IL

interleukin

IM

infectious mononucleosis

IRF

IFN regulating factor

IS

immunosuppression

ITAM

immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activator motif

K-bZIP

KSHV analogue of the EBV-specified Zta

KIP/CIP

kinase inhibitor protein/cyclin inhibitor protein

KS

Kaposi’s sarcoma

KSHV

Kaposi’s sarcoma (associated) herpesvirus

LANA

latent nuclear antigen

LCL

lymphoblastoid cell lines

LMP

latent membrane protein

LPD

lymphoproliferative disorders

LTP

large tegument protein

MAPK

mitogen activated protein kinase

MapK/MKK

mitogen activated kinase/kinase cascade

MCD

multicentric Castleman disease

MCP

monocyte chemoattractant proteins

MHV

murine herpesvirus

NFAT

nuclear factor activator of T cells

NF-κB

nuclear factor κB

NIK

NF-κB inducing kinase

NPC

nasopharyngeal carcinoma

OBP

ori-binding protein

PAN

polyadenylated nuclear RNA species

PEL

primary effusion lymphoma

Rb

retinoblastoma (proteins)

RR

ribonucleotide reductase (genes)

RS

Reed—Sternberg (cells)

Rta

R transactivator protein (R fragment encoded)

Sos

son of sevenless (protein)

STAT

signaling transduction and transcription

TK

thymidine kinase

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

TNFR

TNF receptor

TPA

4β,9α,12β,13α,20-pentahydroxytiglia-1,6-dien-3-one 12β-myristate 13α-acetate (‘12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate’)

TRADD

TNFR-associated death domain

TRAF

TNFR-associated factor

vCyclin

viral cyclin

VEGF

vascular endothelial growth factor

vFLIP

viral FLICE (caspase 1) inhibitor protein

vGPCR

viral G-protein coupled receptor

vMIP

viral macrophage inflammatory protein

VZV

varicella zoster virus

Zta

Z (‘Zebra’) transactivator protein (Z fragment encoded)

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© Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Microbiology and ImmunologyJessenius Medical FacultyMartinSlovakia
  2. 2.Institute of VirologySlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovakia

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