Three methods,i.e. bioremediation by application of bacteria-laden agar, physical absorption of DNT by agar, or illumination by UV light were evaluated for the removal of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) from building-grade concrete. DNT biodegradation byPseudomonas putida TOD was turned “on” and “off” by using toluene as a co-substrate thus allowing for rate-limiting step assessment. Bioremediation efficiency can be >95–97 % in 5–7 d if the process occurs at optimum growth temperature with the biological processes appearing to be rate-limiting. Sterile agar can remove up to 80 % of DNT from concrete thus allowing DNT desorption and biodegradation to be conducted separately. Photoremediation results in 50 % DNT removal in 9–12 d with no further removal, most likely due to mass transfer limitations.
Agar Toluene Biological Process Growth Temperature Optimum Growth
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