Cooperative ordering of impurity dipoles in KNbO3 single crystals
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The impurity atoms forming dipoles in the structure of KNbO3 are arranged regularly in the structure. The locations of the dipole sites were observed by etching technique, when dilute HNO3 was used as an etchant. The dipoles along with the domain structure with which they are associated are stable with respect to temperature, and retain the same sites at Curie temperature. Thus the regular cooperative ordering observed at room temperature also exists at the Curie transition. The importance of this ordering is discussed in terms of domain formation and the basic problem of ferroelectricity in crystals.
KeywordsCooperative ordering impurity dipoles phase transition
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