Advertisement

Biologia Plantarum

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 241–247 | Cite as

Diurnal and ultradiurnal oscillations of growing organs within the framework of the information system of the plant

  • M. Spurný
  • Dana Konečná
Article

Abstract

The analysis of growth and movements of seedling organs of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) provides a pattern of periodic phases of activity and relaxation. The existence of a central organ which would control the phase relationships, is not anticipated in the integrity of the plant. The cyclic activity of individual organs shows itself by growth associated with oscillation movements. One and the same organ may simultaneously accomplish oscillatory movements with a diurnal and ultradiurnal frequency. These rhythms originate during the organ development; the first pair of kidney bean leaves at first executes oscillation movements with a diurnal frequency and only after it is fully developed it exhibits a diurnal cycle with the photophil phase upwards and the scotophil downwards, the oscillations with an ultradiurnal oycle being maintained. The movements of the two leaves are synchronous, but there occur short sections with a desynchronous cycle. Simultaneously with these oscillations, in which the leaf petiole takes part, the adult leaf performs oscillatory movements perpendicular to the longitudinal leaf axis, the so-called side swings, controlled by periodical changes of the joint attaching the leaf blade. Their frequency is practically identical with that of the ultradiurnal cycle. Thus the periodic growth activity of the kidney bean results in growth oscillations passing in the diurnal cycle with a frequency of 0.043 rev.h-1, their ascending and descending phases consisting of periodical ultradiurnal oscillations in cycles of 0.73–0.59 rev.h-1. The epicotyl growth shows a similar pattern: into the basic diurnal nutation cycle with a frequency of 0.042 rev.h-1 ultradiurnal oscillation cycles are incorporated having a similar frequency to that revealed in leaves (0.69–0.64 rev.h-1). The diurnal oscillatory cycles belong to a system established on the basis of periodicity of day and night and other geophysical cycles. The ultradiurnal rhythmic oscillations are presumed to be an expression of the geocontrol system of root and shoot growth direction and orientation of the organ in space. The shape of their trajectories in bean leaves is contradictory to this; they are not spatial helices, as the kybernetic model would presuppose, but have a vertical, upwards and downwards course in one plane. Since these oscillatory movements with an ultradiurnal cycle cease after petiole excision from the stem and after shoot apex amputation, one may presume that they are coupled with the low-frequency oscillatory system of the epicotyl.

Additional index words

Growth oscillations of the plant synchronization of the growth activity circumnutation of plant organs 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alford, D. K., Tibbits, T. W.: Circadian rhythm of leaves ofPhaseolus angularis L. plants grown in a controlled carbon dioxyde and humidity environment. Plant Physiol.46: 99–102, 1970.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baillaud, L.: Remarks on the synchronization of elementary rhythms, considered as a general problem of chrpnobiology. - In: Aschoff, J. (ed.): Circadian Clocks. (Proc. of the Feldafing Summer School, 7–8 Sept. 1964). Pp. 1–15. Amsterdam 1965.Google Scholar
  3. Blume, J.: An economic principle for regulating rhythms of plants. Chronobiologia2: 291 to 306, 1975.Google Scholar
  4. Bünning, E., Moser, I.: Light-induced phase shift of circadian leaf movements ofPhaseolus: comparison with the effects of potassium and of ethyl alcohol. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. USA70: 3387–3389, 1973.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bünning, E., Moser, I., Wolf, G.: Über die Regelung der plagiotropen Blattlage. Z. Bot.52: 86–97, 1964.Google Scholar
  6. Bünning, E., Stern, K.: Über die tagesperiodischen Bewegungen der Primärblätter vonPhaseolus multiflorus. I. Der Einfluss der Temperatur auf die Bewegungen. Ber. deut. bot. Ges.48: 227, 1930.Google Scholar
  7. Enright, T. J.: Synchronization and ranges of entrainment. - In: Aschoff, J. (ed.): Circadian Clocks. (Proc. Feldafing Summer School, 7–8 Sept. 1964). Pp. 112–124. Amsterdam 1965.Google Scholar
  8. Gurevich, B.Ch.: [Specific communication in the plant on the basis of circadian biological rhythms.] In Russ. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR173: 1459–1462, 1967.Google Scholar
  9. Gurevich, B.Ch., Ioffe, A. A.: [New data on the distribution of physiological circadian rhythms in plants (swinging of the “biological clock”).] In Russ. Bot. Zh.55: 77–81, 1970.Google Scholar
  10. Halaban, R.: Effect of light quality on the circadian rhythm of loaf movement of a short-day plant. Plant Physiol.44: 973–977, 1969.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Heathcote, D. G.: A new type of rhythmic plant movement: micronutation. J. exp. Bot.17: 690–695, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hoshizaki, T., Hamnbr, K. G.: Computer analysis of the leaf movements of Pinto beans. Plant Physiol.44: 1045–1050, 1969.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ketellapper, H. J.: Interaction of endogenous and environmental periods in plant growth. Plant Physiol.35: 238–241, 1960.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Krastina, E. E., Loseva, A. S.: [The changes in the circadian rhythm of kidney bean leaf movements at a severe nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium deficit.] In Russ. Izv. TSKhA (Moskva)1972 (2): 3–11, 1972.Google Scholar
  15. Krastina, E. E., Tsareva, L. A.: [The investigation of the relationship between circadian rhythms of opposite leaves under various illumination conditions.] In Russ. Izv. TSKhA (Moskva)1970 (1): 32–40, 1970.Google Scholar
  16. Kübler, F.: Wechselseitige Synchronisation der Blattbewegungen innerhalb einer Pflanze. Z. Pflanzenphysiol.61: 310–313, 1969.Google Scholar
  17. Scott, B. I. H., Gulline, H. F.: Natural and forced circadian oscillations in the leaf ofTrifolium repena. Aust. J. biol. Sci.25: 60–76, 1972.Google Scholar
  18. Spurný, M.: Diurnal oscillatory movements of growing leaves of tobacco. Biol. Plant.14: 14–27, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Spurný, M.: Parameters of spiral oscillations as indicating the efficiency of control system of growing roots. Biol. Plant.15: 358–360, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Spurný, M.: Elongation and circumnutation oscillations of hypocotyl of pine seedlings(Pinus silvestris L.). Biol. Plant.17: 43–49, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Spurný, M.: Nutation rhythm of growing pine hypocotyl(Pinus silvestris L.) interferred with a phototropic stimulus. Biol. Plant.18: 251–259, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Spurný, M.: Synchronization of oscillatory rhythms of stems and leaves. Biol. Plant.18: 277–282, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wassink, E. C.: Botanical aspects (Concluding remarks). - In: Circadian Rhythmicity. Proc. 1971. Pp. 207–210. Wageningen 1972.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Experimental Botany 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Spurný
    • 1
  • Dana Konečná
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forest BiologyInstitute of the Czechoslovak Academy of SciencesBrnoCzechoslovakia

Personalised recommendations