Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 408–414 | Cite as

Study of the optimal precursors for blocking events

  • Jiang Zhina
  • Luo Dehai


The precursors of dipole blocking are obtained by a numerical approach based upon a quasi-geostrophic barotropic planetary-to synoptic-scale interaction model without topography and with a localized synopticscale wave-maker. The optimization problem related to the precursors of blocking is formulated and the nonlinear optimization method is used to examine the optimal synoptic-scale initial field successfully. The results show that the prominent characteristics of the optimal synoptic-scale initial field are that the synoptic-scale wave train structures exist upstream of the incipient blocking. In addition, the large-scale low/high eddy-forcing pattern upstream of the incipient blocking is an essential precondition for the onset of dipole blocking.

Key words

nonlinear optimization method dipole blocking pre-condition eddy-forcing 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Buizza, R., and F. Molteni, 1996: The role of finite-time barotropic instability during the transition to blocking.J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 1675–1697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Butchart, N., K. Haines, and J. C. Marshall, 1989: A theoretical and diagnostic study of solitary waves and atmospheric blocking.J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 2063–2078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Charney, J. G., and J. G. DeVore, 1979: Multiple flow equilibria in the atmosphere and blocking.J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 1205–1216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Duan Wansuo, Mu Mu, and Wang Bin, 2004: Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations as the optimal precursors for ENSO events.J. Geophys. Res.,109, 4756–4768.Google Scholar
  5. Farrell, B. F., 1990: Small error dynamics and the predictability of atmospheric flows.J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 2409–2416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Frederiksen, J. S., 1997: Adjoint sensitivity and finite-time normal mode disturbances during blocking.J. Atmos. Sci,654, 1144–1165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jiang Zhina, Luo Dehai, and Diao Yina, 2005: Numerical simulation of interaction between planetary-scale waves and synoptic-scale waves.Journal of Ocean University of China, (in press). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. Lacarra, R., and O. Talagrand, 1988: Short-range evolution of small perturbations in a barotropic model.Tellus,40A, 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Li Zhijin, A. Barcilon, and I. M. Navon, 1999: Study of block onset using sensitivity perturbation in climatological flows.Mon. Wea. Rev.,127(3), 879–900.Google Scholar
  10. Luo Dehai, 1999:Envelope Rossby Solitions in the Large-Scale Atmosphere and Blocking Circulations. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 113pp. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. Luo Dehai, 2000: Planetary-scale baroclinic envelope Rossby solitions in a two-layer model and their interaction with synoptic-scale eddies.Dyn. Atmos. Oceans,32, 27–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Luo Dehai, 2005a: A barotropic envelope Rossby soliton model for block-eddy interaction. Part I: Effect of topography.J. Atmos. Sci.,62, 5–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Luo Dehai, 2005b: A barotropic envelope Rossby soliton model for block-eddy interaction. Part II: Role of westward traveling planetary waves.J. Atmos. Sci.,62, 22–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Luo Dehai, Huang Fei, and Diao Yina, 2001: Interaction between antecedent planetary-scale envelope soliton blocking anticyclone and synoptic-scale eddies: Observations and theory.J. Geophys. Res.,106(23), 31795–31816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Malguzzi, P., and P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, 1984: Nonlinear stationary Rossby waves on nonuniform zonal winds and atmospheric blocking, Part I: The analytical theory.J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 2620–2628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McWilliams, J., 1980: An application of equivalent modons to atmospheric blocking.Dyn. Atmos. Oceans,5, 219–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Michelangeli, P. A., and R. Vautard, 1998: The dynamics of Euro-Atlantic blocking onset.Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,124, 1045–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mu Mu, 2000: Nonlinear singular vectors and nonlinear singular values.Sciences in China (D),43, 375–385.Google Scholar
  19. Mu Mu, and Wang Jiacheng, 2001: Nonlinear fastest growing perturbation and the first kind of predictability.Science in China (D),44, 1128–1139.Google Scholar
  20. Mu Mu, and Duan Wansuo, 2003: A new approach to studying ENSO predictability: Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation.Chinese Science Bulletin,48, 747–749.Google Scholar
  21. Mu Mu, Duan Wansuo, and Wang Jiafeng, 2002: Nonlinear optimization problems in atmospheric and oceanic sciences.East-West Journal of Mathematics, Special volume on Computational Mathematics and Modeling,155, 169–178.Google Scholar
  22. Mu Mu, Duan Wansuo, and Wang Bin, 2003: Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation and its application.Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics,10, 493–501.Google Scholar
  23. Mu Mu, Sun Liang, and H. A. Dijkstra, 2004: The sensitivity and stability of the ocean’s thermohaline circulation to finite amplitude perturbations.Journal of Physical Oceanography,34(10), 2305–2315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nakamura, H., Nakamura, M., and J. L. Anderson, 1997: The role of high- and low-frequency dynamics in blocking formation.Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 2074–2093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oortwijn, J., and J. Barkmeijer, 1995: Perturbations that optimally trigger weather regimes.J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 3932–3944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rex, D. F., 1950a: Blocking action in the middle troposphere and its effects on regional climate. 1. An aerological study of blocking.Tellus,2, 196–211.Google Scholar
  27. Rex, D. F., 1950b: Blocking action in the middle troposphere and its effects on regional climate. 2. The climatology of blocking action.Tellus,2, 275–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shutts, G. J., 1983: The propagation of eddies in diffluent jet streams: Eddy vorticity forcing of blocking flow fields.Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,109, 737–761.Google Scholar
  29. Tibaldi, S., and F. Molteni, 1990: On the operational predictability of blocking.Tellus,42A, 343–365.Google Scholar
  30. Xu Hui, Mu Mu, and Luo Dehai, 2004: Application of nonlinear optimization method to sensitivity analysis of numerical model.Progress in Natural Science,14(6), 546–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiang Zhina
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Luo Dehai
    • 3
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijng
  2. 2.Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing
  3. 3.Laboratory of Physical Oceanography, College of Physical and Environmental OceanographyOcean University of ChinaQingdao

Personalised recommendations