Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 720–729 | Cite as

The soil moisture of China in a high resolution climate-vegetation model

  • Dan Li
  • Ji Jinjun
  • Zhang Peiqun


The spatial distribution of soil moisture, especially the temporal variation at seasonal and interannual scales, is difficult for many land surface models (LSMs) to capture partly due to the deficiencies of the LSMs and the highly spatial variability of soil moisture, which makes it problematic to simulate the moisture for climate studies. However the soil moisture plays an important role in influencing the energy and hydrological cycles between the land and air, so it should be considered in land surface models. In this paper, a soil moisture simulation in China with a T213 resolution (about 0.5625δ × 0.5625°) is compared to the observational data, and its relationship to precipitation is explored. The soil moisture distribution agrees roughly with the observations, and the soil moisture pattern reflects the variation and intensity of the precipitation. In particular, for the 1998 summer catastrophic floods along the Yangtze River, the soil moisture remains high in this region from July to August and represents the flood well. The seasonal cycle of soil moisture is roughly consistent with the observed data, which is a good calibration for the ground simulation capacity of the Atmosphere-Vegetation Interaction Model (AVIM) with respect to this tough problem for land surface models.

Key words

soil moisture precipitation AVIM NCEP 2 seasonal cycle 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Dan Li, Ji Jinjun, and Li Yinpeng, 2002: Climate simulations based on a differentgrid nested and coupled model.Adv. Atmos. Sci.,19, 487–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dan, L., J. J. Ji, and Y. P. Li, 2005: Climatic and biological simulations in a two-way coupled atmospherebiosphere model (CABM).Global and Planetary Change,19, 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dirmeyer, P. A., A. J. Dolmanand, and N. Sato, 1999: The pilot phase of the global soil wetness project.Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,80, 851–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Entin, J. K., A. Robock, K. Y. Vinnikov, S. Qiu, V. Zabelin, S. Liu, A. Namkhai, and Ts. Adyasuren, 1999: Evaluation of Global Soil Wetness Project soil moisture simulations.J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,77, 183–198.Google Scholar
  5. Entin, J. K., A. Robock, K. Y. Vinnikov, S. E. Hollinger, S. Liu, and A. Namkai, 2000: Temporal and spatial scales of observed soil moisture variations in the extratropics.J. Geophys. Res.,105, 11865–11877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Huang Ronghui, Xu Yuhong, Wang Pengfei, and Zhou Liantong, 1998: The features of the catastrophic flood over the Yangtze River basin during the summer of 1998 and cause exploration.Climatic and Environmental Research,3, 300–313. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. Ji, J. J., 1995: A climate-vegetation interaction model: simulating physical and biological processes at the surface.Journal of Biogeography,22, 445–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project.Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 437–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Li, H., A. Robock, S. Liu, X. Mo, and P. Viterbo, 2004: Evaluation of reanalysis soil moisture simulations using updated Chinese soil moisture observations.J. Hydrometeorology,6, 180–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Li Yinpeng, and Ji Jinjun, 2001: Model estimates of global carbon flux between vegetation and the atmosphere.Adv. Atmos. Sci.,18, 807–818.Google Scholar
  11. Liu, S., X. Mo, H. Li, G. Peng, and A. Robock, 2001: Spatial variation of soil moisture in China: Geostatistical characterization.J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,79, 555–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Liu Yongqiang, Ye Duzheng, and Ji Jinjun, 1993: Influence of soil moisture and vegetation on climate (II): Numerical experiments on persistence of short-term climate anomalies.Sciences in China (B),1, 102–109.Google Scholar
  13. Lu Jianhua, and Ji Jinjun, 2002: A simulation study of atmosphere-vegetation interactions over the Tibetan Plateau. Part I: Physical fluxes and parameters.Chinese J. Atmos. Sci.,26, 111–126. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. Ma Zhuguo, 1999: Relationship between soil moisture and regional climate change in East China and establishment of a model for retrieving soil moisture. Ph. D dissertation, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 121pp. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. Ma Zhuguo, Fu Congbin, Xie Li, Chen Wenhai, and Tao Shuwang, 2001: Some problems in the study on the relationship between soil moisture and climatic change.Adv. Earth Sciences,16, 563–568. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. Robock, A., C. A. Schlosser, K. Y. Vinnikov, N. A. Speranskaya, J. K. Entin, and S. Qiu, 1998: Evaluation of the AMIP soil moisture simulations.Global and Planetary Change,19, 181–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Robock, A., K. Y. Vinnikov, G. Srinivasan, K. Entin, S. E. Hollinger, N. A. Speranskaya, S. Liu, and A. Namkhai, 2000: The global soil moisture data bank.Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,81, 1281–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Shukla, J., and Y. Mintze, 1982: The influence of landsurface evaporation on the earth’s climate.Science,215, 1498–1500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Srinivasan, G., A. Robock, J. K. Entin, L. Luo, K. Y. Vinnikov, P. Viterbo, and Participating AMIP Modeling Groups, 2000: Soil moisture simulations in revised AMIP models.J. Geophys. Res.,105, 26635–26644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tan Shukui, 1998: Deep thoughts of land use about the rarely severe flooding disaster along the middle and low reaches of the Yangtze River in 1998.Scientia Geographica Sinica,18, 493–500. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. Tao Shiyan, Zhang Qingyun, and Zhang Shunli, 1998: The great floods in the Yangtze River valley in 1998.Climatic and Environmental Research,3, 290–299. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. Xue Qiangfang, Ren Chuansen, and Tao Shiyan, 2001: An analysis of causes for floods in Chang Jiang River valley in 1998.Quarterly Journal of Applied Meteorology,12, 246–250. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Yeh, T. C., R. T. Wetherald, and S. Manabe, 1984: The effect of soil moisture on the short-term climate and hydrological change-A numerical experiment.Mon. Wea. Rev.,112, 474–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhao Sixiong, Sun Jianhua, Chen Hong, and Zhang Feng, 1998: Study of the heavy rainfall in the Yangtze Changjiang River during July 1998.Climatic and Environmental Research,3, 368–381. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. Zhao Tianbao, Ai Likun, and Feng Jinming, 2004: An intercomparison between NCEP reanalysis and observed data over China.Climatic and Environmental Research,9, 278–294. (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory for Climate StudyNational Climate CenterBeijing
  2. 2.START Regional Center for Temperate East Asia and Key Laboratory of Regional Climate-Environment for Temperate East Asia, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijing

Personalised recommendations