Metallurgical Transactions

, Volume 2, Issue 7, pp 1883–1892 | Cite as

Stress- and strain-induced formation of martensite and its effects on strength and ductility of metastable austenitic stainless steels

  • Dieter Fahr
Mechanical Behavior


The effects of deformation-induced formation of martensite have been studied in metastable austenitic stainless steels. The stability of the austenite, being the critical factor in the formation of martensite, was controlled principally by varying the amounts of carbon and manganese. The formation of martensite was also affected by different test and rolling temperatures, rolling time, and various reductions in thickness. The terms “stress-induced” and “strain-induced” formation of martensite are defined. Experimental results show that low austenite stability resulted in stress-induced formation of martensite, high work-hardening rates, high tensile strengths, low “yield strengths,” and low elongation values. When the austenite was stable, plastic deformation was initiated by slip, and the work-hardening rate was too low to prevent early necking. A specific amount of strain-induced martensite led to an “optimum” work-hardening rate, resulting in high strengthand high ductility. For best results processing should be carried out aboveM d and testing betweenM d andM s. Mechanical working aboveM d had a negligible effect on the yield strength betweenM d andM s when the austenite stability was low, but its effect increased as the austenite became, more stable. Serrations appeared in the stress-strain curve when martensite was strain induced.


Austenite Martensite Rolling Temperature Austenite Stability Rolling Time 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dieter Fahr
    • 1
  1. 1.Metals and Ceramics DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak Ridge

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