Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 114–117 | Cite as

Blood zinc protoporphyrin, serum total protein, and total cholesterol levels in automobile workshop workers in relation to lead toxicity: Our experience

  • Suneesh Kumar Pachathundikandi
  • Earaly Thomas Varghese


Blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), serum total protein (TP), and total cholesterol (TC) levels in automobile workshop workers in relation to lead toxicity were analysed. In the present study, automobile workshop workers (healthy male workers at an age between 28 and 35 from four major automobile workshops in Kottayam, Kerala State, India) and the control (male healthy adults at an age between 28 and 35 residing at Aymanam, a distant village at Kottayam District, Kerala having reduced or no chance of lead exposure) displayed significant difference in blood lead (BPb) and blood ZZP (BZPP) level. The mean value of BPb in automobile workshop workers was 15.76±0.33 μg/dl, while in the control it was 8.20±0.15 μg/dl. In automobile workshop workers, the mean value of BZPP was 34.2±0.62 μg/dl. The control group exhibited a mean of 11.5±0.22 μg/dl. Automobile workshop workers exhibited significant increase in BZPP was corresponding to the increase in BPb level. The total protein levels estimated in automobile workshop workers showed significant decrease compared to control individuals, but was within the reference range of healthy individuals. The mean value of TP level in automobile workshop workers and control was 6.9±0.13 g/dl and 7.71±0.18 g/dl, respectively. There was no significant difference in blood haemoglobin (BHb) level among the automobile workshop workers and control. The serum TC level in automobile workshop workers showed significant decrease compared to the control individuals, but was with in the reference range of healthy individuals. The mean level of serum TC in automobile workshop workers was 162.00±3.44 mg/dl and the same in control was 172.86±4.32 mg/dl. The present study affirms occupational lead toxicity in automobile workshop workers and its effect on serum protein and cholesterol levels.

Key Words

Lead toxicity occupational exposure serum total protein and total cholesterol 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kazantzis, G. (1989). Lead: ancient metal-modern manace? In: Smith MA, Grant LD, Sors AI eds.Lead exposure and child development: an international assessment. Lancaster, England MTP press. 119–128.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goldstein, G.W. (1992) Neurological concepts of lead poisoning in children. Paediatr. Annals 21, 384–388.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bennet, W.M. (1985). Lead nephropathy. Kidney Int. 28, 212–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tong, S. (1998). Lead exposure and cognitive development: persistence and a dynamic pattern. J. Paediatr. Child Health 34, 114–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Markowitz, M. (2000). Lead poisoning: a disease for the next millennium. Curr. Probl. Pediatr. 30, 62–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lutton, J. D., Abraham, N. G., Drammond, G. S., Levere, R. D. and Kappas, A. (1997). Zincporphyrins: Potent inhibitors of hematopoieses in animal and human bone marrow. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 1432–1436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pirkle, J. L., Brody, D. J., Gunter, E. W., Kramer, R. A., Paschal, D. C., Flegal, K. M. and Matte, T. D. (1994). The decline in blood lead levels in the United States. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 284–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Edwards-Bert, P., Calder, I. C. and Maynard, E. J. (1994).National review of public exposure to lead in Australia.Adelaide, South Australian Health Commission.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shilu, T., Yasmin, E., von Schirnding. and Tippawan, P. (2000). Environmental lead exposure: a public health problem of global dimensions. Bull. World. Health. Organ. 78, 1068–1077.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hryhorczuk, D. O., Hogan, M. M., Mallin, K., Hessl, S.M. and Orris, P. (1985). The fall of zinc protoporphyrin levels in workers treated for chronic lead intoxication. J. Occup. Med. 27, 816–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Agrawal, R. and Johri, G. N. (1990). Serum protein changes in lead exposed mice infected withHymenolepis nana. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 34, 387–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Skoczynska, A. and Smolik, R. (1994). The effect of combined exposure to lead and cadmium on serum lipids and lipid peroxide level in rats. Int. J. Occup. Med. Environ. Health 7, 263–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Suwansaksri, J., Teerasart, N., Wiwanitkit, V. and Chaiyaset, T. (2002). High blood level among garage workers in Bangkok, public concern is necessary. BioMetals 15: 367–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stanton, N. V., Gunter, E. W., Parsons, P.J. and Field, P. H. (1989). Empirically determined lead poisoning screening cut off for the Protofluor Z haematoflurometer. Clin. Chem. 35, 2104–2107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Froom, P., Kristal-Boench, E., Benbassat, J., Ashkanazi, R. and Ribak, J. (1999). Lead exposure in battery-factory workers is not associated with anemia. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 41, 120–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rosen, J. F., Chesney, R. W. and Hamstra, A. J. (1980). Reduction in 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D in children with increased lead absorption. N. Eng. J. Med. 302, 1128–1131.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gourrier, E., Lamour, C., Feldmann, D. and Bensman, A. (1991). Early tubular involvements in lead poisoning in children. Arch. Fr. Pediatr. 48, 685–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    WHO. (1995). Inorganic lead.Environmental Health Criteria No. 165, Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Clinical BIochemists of India 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suneesh Kumar Pachathundikandi
    • 1
  • Earaly Thomas Varghese
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical EducationMahatma Gandhi UniversityKottayamIndia

Personalised recommendations