Advertisement

The elaboration theory’s procedure for designing instruction

A conceptual approach
  • Charles M. Reigeluth
  • Afnan Darwazeh
Articles

Abstract

This paper describes the use of elaboration theory in selecting, sequencing, synthesizing, and summarizing instructional content that is predominantly conceptual in nature. A brief summary of the elaboration theory is provided, as well as a description of the major works that the elaboration theory has incorporated or built upon. A nine-step procedure is presented which can be used by designers and teachers working together as a team. The procedure involves (1) deciding when to use a conceptual approach, (2) selecting the concepts to be taught and organizing them into knowledge structures, (3) deciding what is the most inclusive of those knowledge structures, (4) arranging that knowledge structure’s concepts in a general-to-detailed sequence that will provide the “skeleton” or basic structure of the course, (5) identifying other ideas and facts that should also be taught (including learning prerequisites) and adding “flesh” to the skeleton of the course by allocating each such idea and fact to its most highly related “skeletal” concept, (6) allocating all content to lessons, (7) sequencing the content within each lesson, (8) designing the test items and instruction on each individual piece of content (i.e., on each concept, principle, procedure, and fact), and (9) creating synthesis test items and instructional components. Prescriptions for developing instruction on a single piece of content (step 8 above) are based on Merrill’s component display theory.

Keywords

Instructional Design Conceptual Structure Learner Control Instructional Development Motivational Strategy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ausubel, D.P.Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1968.Google Scholar
  2. Bloom, B.S. (Ed.).Taxonomy of educational objectives, handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay, 1956.Google Scholar
  3. Bruner, J.S.The process of education. New York: Vintage Books, 1960.Google Scholar
  4. Bruner, J.S.Toward a theory of instruction. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1966.Google Scholar
  5. Gagne, R.M. Learning Hierarchies.Educational Psychologist, 1968,6, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gagne, R.M.The conditions of learning. 3rd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1977.Google Scholar
  7. Keller, J.M. Motivation and instructional design: A theoretical perspective.Journal of Instructional Development, 1979,2, (4), 26–32.Google Scholar
  8. Keller, J.M. Motivational design of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.),Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status, in press.Google Scholar
  9. Merrill, M.D. The component display theory. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.),Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status, in press.Google Scholar
  10. Merrill, M.D., Reigeluth, C.M., & Faust, G.W. The instructional quality profile: A curriculum evaluation and design tool. In H.F. O’Neil, Jr. (Ed.),Procedures for instructional systems development. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  11. Merrill, M.D., Richards, R.E., Schmidt, R.V., & Wood, N.D.The instructional strategy diagnostic profile training manual. San Diego: Courseware, Inc., 1977.Google Scholar
  12. Merrill, M.D., & Wood, N.D.Rules for effective instructional strategies. Instructional Design Series. Orem, Utah: Courseware, Inc., 1975.Google Scholar
  13. Merrill, P.F. Hierarchical and information processing task analysis: A comparison.Journal of Instructional Development, 1978,1(2), 35–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Merrill, P.F. Analysis of a procedural task.NSPI Journal, February 1980,19(1), 11–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Norman, D.A.Cognitive organization and learning. (Report No. 37). San Diego: Center for Human Information Processing, University of California, 1973.Google Scholar
  16. Reigeluth, C.M. (Ed.),Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status, in press.Google Scholar
  17. Reigeluth, C.M., Merrill, M.D., & Bunderson, C.V. The structure of subject matter content and its instructional design implications.Instructional Science, 1978,7, 107–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Reigeluth, C.M., Merrill, M.D., Wilson, B.G., & Spiller, R.T. The elaboration theory of instruction: A model for sequencing and synthesizing instruction.Instructional Science, 1980,9, 195–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Reigeluth, C.M., & Rodgers, C.A. The elaboration theory of instruction: Prescriptions for task analysis and design.NSPI Journal. 1980,19, 16–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Reigeluth, C.M., & Sari, I.F. From better tests to better texts: Instructional design models for writing better textbooks.NSPI Journal, October 1980,19 (8), 4–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Reigeluth, C.M., & Stein, F.S The elaboration theory of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.),Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status, in press.Google Scholar
  22. Resnick, L. Issues in the study of learning hiererachies. In L.R. Resnick (Ed.), Hierarchies in children’s learning: A symposium.Instructional Science, 1973,2, 312–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rigney, J.W. Learning strategies: A theoretical perspective. In H.F. O’Neil, Jr. (Ed.),Learning strategies. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  24. Sari, I.F., & Reigeluth, C.M. Writing and evaluating textbooks: Contributions from instructional theory. In D. Jonassen (Ed.),Technology of text: Principles for structuring, designing, and displaying text. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, in press.Google Scholar
  25. Scandura, J.M.Structural learning I: Theory and research. London: Gordon & Breach Science Publishers, 1973.Google Scholar
  26. Scandura, J.M. Instructional strategies based on the structural learning theory. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.),Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status, in press.Google Scholar
  27. Twelker, P.A., Urbach, F.D., & Buck, J.E.The systematic development of instruction: An overview and basic guide to the literature. Stanford, CA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Media and Technology, 1972.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles M. Reigeluth
    • 1
  • Afnan Darwazeh
    • 1
  1. 1.Program of Instructional Design, Development, and EvaluationSyracuse UniversitySyracuse

Personalised recommendations