Advertisement

Chinese Science Bulletin

, Volume 48, Supplement 1, pp 111–116 | Cite as

Mineralogy of smectites in the surface sediments from the East Pacific and its significance

  • Haiping Zhang
  • Xuefa Shi
  • Jin Chen
  • Yongfang Xue
  • Jinfa He
  • Desheng Zhu
  • Chunying Xin
  • Jianwei Wei
Article

Abstract

XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS are employed to analyze smectites in the clay fraction of the surface sediments from the East Pacific. It is shown from the XRD results that the clay fraction consists of about 20% smectites. Three types of smectites are identified, Fe-rich (Type I), Fe, Mg-rich (Type II) and Na,Ca smectite (Type III), and most of them are not wellcrystallized. Type I is widely distributed in sediments, showing honeycomblike in the SEM, and aggregated or dispersive hairlike, or cloudy assemblage with a bit curl near its edge in the TEM. This type is considered to be typomorphic type of authigenic smectite in the East Pacific. Type II is similar to Type I in micromorphology in the TEM, showing a transition micronite, while Type III is tabletlike in the TEM with an unclear edge. Type I may be altered from volcanics and some of them even precipitated from the low subthermal water. Type II could also be formed in the ocean floor, while Type III comes from dry and distant continental area. This study suggests that the characteristic of chemical composition and morphology of smectite may give a clue to understand sediment source, origin of minerals and sedimentation in the deep sea.

Keywords

East Pacific surface sediment smectite origin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    He, L. B., Pyroclastics and clay minerals in the deep sea sediments from the western central Pacific, Kexue Tongbao (Chinese Science Bulletin) (in Chinese), 1986, 6: 450–461.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    He, L. B., Xin, C. Y., Clay minerals from the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, Kexue Tongbao (Chinese Science Bulletin) (in Chinese), 1985, 30(6): 449–452.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shi, X. F., Chen, L. R., Li, K. Y. et al., Minerageny study of clay minerals from the western Philipine Sea, Marine Geology and Quaternary Geology (in Chinese), 1995, 15(2): 43–54.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aoki, S., Kohyama, N., Ishizuka, T., Sedimentary history and chemical characteristics of clay minerals in cores from the distal part of the Bengal Fan (ODP 116), Marine Geology, 1991, 99: 175–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aoki, S., Kohyama, N., The vertical change in clay mineral composition and chemical characteristics of smectite in sediment cores from the southern part of the Central Pacific Basin, Marine Geology, 1991, 98: 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aoki, S., Kohyama, N., Modern sedimentation in the Japan Trench: implication of the mineralogy and chemistry of clays sampled from sediment traps, Marine Geology. 1992, 108: 197–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schops, D., Peter, M. Herzig, Halbach, P. et al., Mineralogy, chemistry and oxygen isotope thermometry of nontronitic smectites from Central Pacific seamounts, Marine Geology, 1993, 106: 331–343.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu, J. H., Geochemistry study of rare earth elements in the deep sea sediments from East Pacific, Marine Geology and Quaternary Geology (in Chinese), 1992, 12(2): 33–42.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xu, D. Y., Jin, Q. H., Liang, D. H., Polymetallic Nodules in the Central Pacific and Its Formation Environment (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1994, 133–166.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Biscaye, P. E., Mineralogy and sedimentation of recent deep-sea clay in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas and oceans, Geol. Soc, Am. Bull., 1965, 76: 803–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ratee, M. A., Timofeev, P. P., Rengarten, N. N., Minerals of the clay fraction in Pliocene-Quaternary sediments of East Equatorial Pacific in Rosendahl, Init. Repts., DSDP 54, 1980, 307–318.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang, Y. X., Zhang, N. X. et al., Clay Minerals of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1994, 104.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aoki, S., Kohyama, N., Cenozoic sedimentation and clay mineralogy in the northern part of the Magellan Through, Central Pacific Basin, Marine Geology, 1998, 148: 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang, N. X., Li, Y. Q., Zhao, H. M., Research Methods of Clay Minerals (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1990, 43.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    He, L. B., Liu, Q. Y., Chemistry characteristics of clay minerals in the sediments from the Huanghe and Changjiang Rivers, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 1999, 42(7): 730–734.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wu, S. Y., Study of Hydrothermal Chimneys in the Mariana Trough (in Chinese), Beijing: Ocean Press, 1995, 45–57.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Karbunova, Z. N., The accumulation history of smectites in the world deep sea sediments, Marine Geology Letters, 1999, 10: 10–12.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vitali, F., Blanc, G., Larque, P. et al., Thermal diagenesis of clay minerals within volcanogenic material from the Tonga convergent margin, Marine Geology, 1999, 157: 105–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu, J. H., Liang, H. F., Records of hydrothermal activity in the surface sediments from the East Pacific, Marine Geology Letters (in Chinese), 1996, 9: 4–6.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Herman, B., Zimmerman Lithostratigraphy and lithologic stratigraphy and Eastern Caribbean and Eastern Equatorial Pacific, Leg 68. Deep Sea Drilling Project, 1982, 383–395.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shi, X. F., Zhang, H. P., Xin, C. Y., Discovery of anatase and barite minerals in surface sediments from the East Pacific and its significance, Acta Oceanologica Sinica (in Chinese), 2001, 23(4): 131–134.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science in China Press 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haiping Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Xuefa Shi
    • 2
  • Jin Chen
    • 4
  • Yongfang Xue
    • 5
  • Jinfa He
    • 6
  • Desheng Zhu
    • 6
  • Chunying Xin
    • 3
  • Jianwei Wei
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of OceanographyChinese Academy of SciencesQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geol-ogy, First Institute of OceanographyState Oceanic AdministrationQingdaoChina
  3. 3.Graduate SchoolChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Physics Department of Peking UniversityBeijingChina
  5. 5.Research Institute of Petroleum ChemistryBeijingChina
  6. 6.Laboratory Center of Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & DevelopmentBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations