Socioeconomic status and cancer screening in Japanese males: Large inequlaity in middle-aged and urban residents
- 42 Downloads
Cancer screening has become common in Japan. However, little is known about the socioeconomic factors affecting cancer screening participation. This study was performed to examine the association between socioeconomic status and cancer screening participation in Japanese males.
Using the data of 23,394 males sampled from across Japan, the associations between self-reported participation in screenings for three types of cancer (i.e., stomach, lung and colon) and socioeconomic variables, including marital status, types of residential area (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan), household income, and employment status, were examined using multilevel logistic regression by age group (40 to 64 and ≥65 years).
The cancer screening participation rates were 34.5% (stomach), 21.3% (lung), and 24.8% (colon) for the total population studied. Being married, living in a nonmetropolitan area, having a higher income and being employed in a large-scale company showed independent associations with a higher rate of cancer screening participation for all three types of cancer. Income-related differences in cancer screening were more pronounced in the middle-aged population than in the elderly population, and in metropolitan areas than in nonmetropolitan areas.
There are notable socioeconomic differences in cancer screening participation in Japan. To promote cancer screening, socioeconomic factors should be considered, particularly for middle-aged and urban residents.
Key wordscancer screening health inequality socioeconomic factor urban health
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- (1).Acheson D. Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health. London: Stationary Office; 2000.Google Scholar
- (2).Kogenvinas M, Pearce N, Susser M, Boffetta P. Social Inequalities and Cancer. Oxford: IARC; 1997.Google Scholar
- (3).Davey Smith G. Health Inequalities. Bristol: Policy Press; 2003.Google Scholar
- (13).Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Report of Community and Elderly Health. Tokyo: Health and Welfare Statistics Association; 2003. (Article in Japanese)Google Scholar
- (15).Hamashima C, Yoshida K. What is important for the introduction of cancer screening in the workplace? Asia Pac J Can Prev. 2003; 4: 39–43.Google Scholar
- (16).Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 2001 Comprehensive Survey of the Living Conditions of People on Health and Welfare. Tokyo: Health and Welfare Statistics Association; 2003. (Article in Japanese)Google Scholar
- (17).Mejer L, Siermann C. Income Poverty in the European Union: Children, Gender and Poverty Gaps. Luxembourg: Eurostat; 2000.Google Scholar
- (18).Hirata M, Kumagai S, Tabuchi T, Tainaka H, Ando T, Orita H. Actual conditions of occupational health activities in small-scale enterprises in Japan: system for occupational health, health management and demands by small-scale enterprises. Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi. 1999; 41: 190–201. (Article in Japanese)PubMedGoogle Scholar
- (20).Leyland AH, Goldstein H. Multilevel Modelling of Health Statistics. West Sussex: Wiley; 2001.Google Scholar
- (24).Tanaka T, Tsushima S, Morio S, Okamoto N, Sato T, Kakigawa Y, et al. Analysis of cancer screening participation in regional inhabitants. Kosei no Shihyo. 1990; 37: 21–28. (Article in Japanese)Google Scholar
- (27).Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Survey on Demands of Health and Welfare Services. Tokyo: Health and Welfare Statistics Association; 2000. (Article in Japanese)Google Scholar
- (33).Watanabe Y, Morita M. Screening for gastric and colorectal cancer in Japan. Journal of Kyoko Prefectural University of Medicine. 2003; 112: 371–378. (Article in Japanese)Google Scholar
- (34).Ozasa K. Lung cancer screening, today. Journal of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine. 2003; 112: 395–402. (Article in Japanese)Google Scholar
- (37).Kunst A, Mackenbach J. Measuring socioeconomic inequalities in health. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 1997.Google Scholar
- (38).Ohtake F. Inequalities in Japan. Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shinbunsha; 2005. (Article in Japanese)Google Scholar
- (40).Subramanian SV, Jone K, Duncan C. Multilevel Methods for Public Health Research. In: Kawachi I, Berkman LF editors. Neighborhoods and Health. New York: Oxford University Press; 2003. p. 65–111.Google Scholar