Chinese Science Bulletin

, 50:396 | Cite as

Reflection and phase of left-handed metamaterials at microwave frequencies

  • Qian Zhao
  • Xiaopeng Zhao
  • Lei Kang
  • Qing Zheng


We experimentally investigated the reflection and phase of the left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) in a rectangular waveguide for the normally incident microwave. The samples are constructed by periodically arraying the copper split ring resonators (SRRs) and wires. It is found that for the LHMs with one-layered SRRs, a reflection peak with a depth of −3.3 dB (i.e. with the reflectivity of 47%) occurs in the left-handed range. The dependence of reflection phase on the frequency is different from that of the transmission phase, and the reflection phase has an inflexion at the reflection peaks. For the LHMs with three-layered SRRs, the depth of reflection peak increases with the row number, i.e. reflection is weakened, and the reflection peak has a shift with respect to the left-handed transmission peak. It is thought that the interaction between different layers of SRRs is the reason of the shift.


left-handed metamaterials reflection phase 


  1. 1.
    Veselago, V. G., The electrodynamics of substances with simulta-neously negative values of permittivity and permeability, Sov. Phys. Usp., 1968, 10(4): 509–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Houck, A. A., Brock, J. B., Chuang, I. L., Experimental observation of a left-handed material that obeys Snell’s law, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2003, 90(13): 137401–137408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seddon, N., Bearpark, T., Observation of the inverse Doppler effect, Science, 2003, 302(5650): 1537–1540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pendry, J. B., Negative refraction makes a perfect lens, Phys. Rev. Lett, 2000, 85(18): 3966–3969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pendry, J. B., Holden, A. J., Robbins, D. J. et al., Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 1999, 47: 2075–2084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shelby, R., Smith, D. R., Schultz, S., Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction, Science, 2001, 292(5514): 77–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang, F. L., Zhao, Q., Liu, Y. H. et al., The behavior of hexagon split ring resonators and left-handed metamaterials, Chin. Phys. Lett, 2004, 21(7): 1330–1332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhao, Q., Zhao, X. P., Kang, L. et al., The defect effect in the one-dimensional negative permeability material, Acta Physica Sinica (in Chinese), 2004, 53(7): 2206–2211.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kang, L., Zhao, Q., Zhao, X. P., The defect effect in the two-dimensional negative permeability material, Acta Physica Sinica (in Chinese), 2004, 53(10): 3379–3382.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brown, E. R., Parker, C. D., Yablonovitch, E., Radiation properties of a planar antenna on a photonic-crystal substrate, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 1993, 10(2): 404–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ruppin, R., Bragg reflectors containing left-handed materials, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2003, 38(60): 494–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Markos, P., Soukoulis, C. M., Transmission studies of left-handed materials, Phys. Rev. B, 2001, 65(3): 033401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science in China Press 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qian Zhao
    • 1
  • Xiaopeng Zhao
    • 1
  • Lei Kang
    • 1
  • Qing Zheng
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Electrorheological Technology, Department of Applied PhysicsNorthwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations