Genetic and chromosomal variation inPetunia hybrida plants regenerated from protoplast and callus cultures
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Plants regenerated from callus cultures derived from leaf discs and mesophyll protoplasts ofPetunia hybrida cv. Rose of Heaven exhibit a high frequency of genetic and chromosomal variation. Of twelve leaf disc-derived plants examined, only three had the normal diploid chromosome number (2n=14) while seven were tetraploid and two were aneuploid (16 and 27 chromosomes). Of seventeen plants derived from two protoplasts, none had the diploid chromosome number. Most had 28 chromosomes, one 29, two 27, one 26 and one had variable numbers (14–28) in different root tip cells. In all cases aneuploidy was associated with developmental abnormality. In addition, heritable differences in growth, morphology and flower pigmentation were observed in callus-derived tetraploids and diploids, including one diploid which differed from parent plants in at least four characters. These results are discussed in terms of the importance ofPetunia in genetics research and for studies of somaclonal variation.
KeywordsChromosome Number Callus Culture Somaclonal Variation None None Mesophyll Protoplast
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