Regulation of flower organogenesis: Phytohormone control of mRNA populations during sexual differentiation inMercurialis annua L.
- 36 Downloads
Some general data on the genetic control and the possibilities of regulation of developmental paths inDrosophila are furnished. The insights to be gained from this insect will surely have implications that extend far beyond the fruit-fly. For example, in plants, developmental programs for floral organs, implying specific proteins are known. Developmental mutants in which mutate alleles control developmental programs for flowering were also selected in several species (Zea, Pisum, Sorghum, Cucumis, Mercurialis). Chemicals, especially phytohormones interfering with these programs are discussed. The case of sexual differentiation ofMercurialis is discussed in more detail. In this species, sex organs are controlled by sex determination genes and by auxins (male) and cytokinins (female). Flowers of each sex can be characterized by specific mRNA populations. They were evidenced by translationin vitro in a cell-free system of the various kinds of mRNAs [poly(A), non poly(A), polysomes]. The feminisation of genetic males by cytokinins induces the mRNA population of female type. Evidence concerning the implications of cytokinins in protein synthesis before translation level is presented. This is also probably true for auxins, although direct evidence is lacking.
KeywordsHigh Molecular Mass Imaginal Disk Cytokinin Action mRNA Population Genetic Male
- Baulcombe, D.: α-amylases and “Gibb-ons”. Molecular analysis of co-regulated gene families in wheat. -British Society for Developmental Biology, Leicester Meeting 2 –5 April 1984.Google Scholar
- Brachet, J.: Introduction à l’embryologie moléculaire. -Masson, Paris 1974.Google Scholar
- Coe, E. H., Neuffer, M. G.: Embryo cells and their destinies in the corn plant. -In:Sub-telny, S., Sussex, I. M. (ed.): The Clonal Basis of Development. Pp. 113–129. Academic Press, New York 1978.Google Scholar
- Hansen, D. J., Bellman, S. K., Sacher, R. N.: Gibberellic-acid-controlled sex expression in corn tassels. -Crop Sci.16: 371–374, 1976.Google Scholar
- Heslop-Harrison, J.: The experimental control of sexuality and inflorescence structure inZea mays L. -Proc. Linn. Soc. London172: 108–129, 1961.Google Scholar
- Heslop-Harrison, J.: Sex expression in flowering plants. -Brookhaven Symposium in Bi-ology n∘ 16: Meristem and Differentiation. Pp. 109–125. Brookhaven nat. Laboratory Publ. Upton, New York 1964.Google Scholar
- Jaiswal, V. S., Kumar, A.: Change in peroxidase and its multiple forms in relation to sex differentiation inCoccinia indica. -Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen75: 578–581, 1980.Google Scholar
- Krishnamoorthy, H. N., Talukdar, A.: Chemical control of sex expression inZea mays L. -Z. Pflanzenphysiol.79: 91–94, 1976.Google Scholar
- Kulaeva, N. O., Khryanin, V. N., Chaïlakhyan, M. K. H.: [Genetic and hormonal regulation of sex expression in plants.] In Russ. -Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR152: 1275–1276, 1980.Google Scholar
- Pernès, J.: Genetic systems involved in the flowering process. -Coll. int. C.N.R.S. 285 (Physio-logie de la floraison section 6): 209–241, 1979.Google Scholar
- Sheridan, W. F., Neuffer, M. G.: Maize developmental mutants embryos unable to form leaf primordia. -J. Hered.73: 318–329, 1982.Google Scholar
- Sussex, I. M.: Do concepts of animal development apply to plant systems? -Brookhaven Symposium in Biology n∘ 25. Basic Mechanisms in Plant Morphogenesis. Pp. 145–151. Bookhaven nat. Laboratory Publ. Upton, New York 1974.Google Scholar