Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 304–312 | Cite as

Self-regulation, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and social support: Social cognitive theory and nutrition behavior

  • Eileen S. Anderson
  • Richard A. Winett
  • Janet R. Wojcik
Article

Abstract

Background: Understanding the need for and accessibility to healthier foods have not improved the overall diets of the U.S. population. Social cognitive theory (SCT) may explain how other variables, such as self-regulation and self-efficacy, may be key to integrating healthier nutrition into U.S. lifestyles.Purpose: To determine how SCT accounts for the nutritional content of food purchases and consumption among adults in a health promotion study.Methods: Participants were 712 churchgoers (18% African American, 66% female, 79% overweight or obese) from 14 churches in southwestern Virginia participating in the baseline phase of a larger health promotion study. Data were collected on the nutrition related social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulation components of SCT, as well as on the fat, fiber, fruit, and vegetable content of food-shopping receipts and food frequency questionnaires. These data were used to test the fit of models ordered as prescribed by SCT and subjected to structural equation analysis.Results: SCT provided a good fit to the data explaining 35%, 52%, and 59% of observed variance in percent calories from fat, fiber g/1000 kcals and fruit and vegetable servings/1000 kcals. Participants’ age, gender, socioeconomic status, social support, self-efficacy, negative outcome expectations, and self-regulation made important contributions to their nutrition behavior—a configuration of influences consistent with SCT.Conclusions: These results suggest a pivotal role for self-regulatory behavior in the healthier food choices of adults. Interventions effective at garnering family support, increasing nutrition related self-efficacy, and overcoming negative outcome expectations should be more successful at helping adults enact the self-regulatory behaviors essential to buying and eating healthier foods.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    Blendon RJ, DesRoches CM, Benson JM, et al.:Harvard School of Public Health OBESITY POLL, July 2005. Boston: Harvard School of Public Health. Retrieved May 31, 2007 from http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/press/releases/blendon/ObesityTopline.docGoogle Scholar
  2. (2).
    U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Food Surveys Research Group Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center:Results from USDA’s 1994–96 Diet and Health Knowledge Survey: Table Set 19. October 2000. Beltsville, MD: Author. Retrieved May 31, 2007 from http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12355000/pdf/dhks9496.PDFGoogle Scholar
  3. (3).
    Reed J, Frazão J, Itskowitz R:How Much Do Americans Pay for Fruits and Vegetables? Agriculture Information Bulletin, Number 790, July 2004. Washington, DC: Economic Research Service, USDA. Retrieved May 31, 2007 from http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aib790/Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    Buzby J, Farah H, Vocke G:Will 2005 Be the Year of Whole Grains? Washington, DC: Economic Research Service, USDA. Retrieved May 31, 2007 from http://www.ers.usda.gov/AmberWaves/June05/pdf/FullIssueJune2005.pdfGoogle Scholar
  5. (5).
    Nord M, Andrews M, Carlson S:Measuring Food Security in the United States: Household Food Security in the United States, 2004. United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, Report No. Er111. Washington, DC. Retrieved May 31, 2007 from http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/err11/Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    Reeves MJ, Rafferty AP: Healthy lifestyle characteristics among adults in the United States, 2000.Archives of Internal Medicine. 2005,165:854–857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. (7).
    USDA, Economic Research Service:Food Guide Pyramid Servings Data. Washinton, DC: Author. Retrieved May 31, 2007 from http://www.ers.usda.gov/data/foodconsumption/FoodGuideIndex.htm#caloriesGoogle Scholar
  8. (8).
    Farah H, Buzby J:US Food Consumption up 16% Since 1970. Amber Waves. Washington DC: Economic Research Service, USDA. Retrieved May 31, 2007 from http://www.ers.usda.gov/AmberWaves/November05/pdf/FullIssueNovember2005.pdfGoogle Scholar
  9. (9).
    French SA, Harnack L, Jeffery RW: Fast food restaurant use among women in the Pound of Prevention study: Dietary, behavioral and demographic correlates.International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. 2000,24:1353–1359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. (10).
    Nestle M: The ironic politics of obesity [Editorial].Science. 2003,299:781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. (11).
    Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM: Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977–1998.Journal of the American Medical Society. 2003,289:450–453.Google Scholar
  12. (12).
    French SA, Story M, Jeffery RW: Environmental influences on eating and physical activity.Annual Review of Public Health. 2001,22:309–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. (13).
    Wadden TA, Brownell KD, Foster GD: Obesity: Responding to the global epidemic.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2002,70:510–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. (14).
    Peters JC, Wyatt HR, Donahoo WT, Hill JO: From instinct to intellect: The challenge of maintaining healthy weight in the modern world.Obesity Reviews. 2002,3:69–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. (15).
    Bandura A:Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman, 1997.Google Scholar
  16. (16).
    Hill JO, Peters JC: Environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic.Science. 1998,280:1371–1374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. (17).
    Anderson ES, Winett RA, Wojcik JR: Social cognitive determinants of nutrition behavior among supermarket shoppers: A structural equation analysis.Health Psychology. 2000,19:479–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. (18).
    Anderson ES, Winett RA, Wojcik JR, Winett SG, Bowden T: A computerized social cognitive intervention for nutrition behavior: Direct and mediated effects of fat, fiber, fruits, and vegetables, self-efficacy and outcome expectations among adults.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2001,23:88–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. (19).
    Luszczynska A, Gibbons X, Piko BF: Self-regulatory cognitions, social comparison, and perceived peers’ behaviors as predictors of nutrition and physical activity: A comparison among adolescents in Hungary, Poland, Turkey, and USA.Psychology & Health. 2004,19:577–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. (20).
    Ford ES, Ahluwalia, IB, Galuska DA: Social relationships and cardiovascular disease risk factors: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.Preventive Medicine. 2000,30:83–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. (21).
    Steptoe A, Perkins-Porras L, Rink E, Hilton S, Cappuccio FP: Psychological and social predictors of changes in fruit and vegetable consumption over 12 months following behavioral and nutrition education counseling.Health Psychology. 2004,23:574–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. (22).
    Maes S, Karoly P: Self-regulation assessment and intervention in physical health and illness: a review.Applied Psychology. 2005,54:267–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. (23).
    Pelletier LG, Dion SC, Slovinec-D’Angleo M, Reid R: Why do you regulate what you eat? Relationships between forms of regulation, eating behaviors, sustained dietary behavior change, and psychological adjustment.Motivation and Emotion. 2004,28:245–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. (24).
    Vartanian LR, Herman CP, Polivy, J: Does regulatory focus play a role in dietary restraint?Eating Behaviors. 2006,7:333–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. (25).
    Ammerman AS, Lindquist CH, Lohr KN, Hersey J: Efficacy of behavioral interventions to modify dietary fat and fruit and vegetable intake: A review of the evidence.Preventive Medicine. 2002,35:25–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. (26).
    Schnoll R, Zimmerman BJ: Self-regulation training enhances dietary self-efficacy and dietary fiber consumption.Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2001,101:1006–1011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. (27).
    Grossarth-Maticek R, Eysenck HJ: Self-regulation and mortality from cancer, coronary heart disease, and other causes: A prospective study.Personality and Individual Differences. 1995,19:781–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. (28).
    Bandura A: Health promotion by social cognitive means.Health Education and Behavior. 2004,2:143–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. (29).
    Weinstein ND: Misleading tests of health behavior theories.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2007,33:1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. (30).
    Block 98 Food Frequency Questionnaire. Berkeley, CA: Block Dietary Data Systems, 1998.Google Scholar
  31. (31).
    Anderson ES, Winett RA, Bickley PG, et al.: Improving food purchases: The effectiveness of a public access, multimedia intervention in supermarket settings.Journal of Health Psychology. 1997,2:209–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. (32).
    Winett RA, Anderson ES, Bickley PG, et al.: Nutrition for a Lifetime System: A multimedia system for altering supermarket shoppers’ purchases to meet nutritional guidelines.Computers in Human Behavior. 1997,13:371–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. (33).
    Duncan OD, Hatt PK, North CC: A socioeconomic index for all occupations. In Reiss AJ, (ed),Occupations and Social Status. New York: Freeman, 1961, 109–138.Google Scholar
  34. (34).
    Jöreskog KG, Sorbom D:LISREL 8.8. Chicago: Scientific Software, 2007.Google Scholar
  35. (35).
    Jöreskog KG, Sorbom D: LISREL 7:A Guide to the Program and Applications (2nd ed.). Chicago: SPSS, Inc., 1989.Google Scholar
  36. (36).
    Kline RB:Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford, 2005.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eileen S. Anderson
    • 1
  • Richard A. Winett
    • 1
  • Janet R. Wojcik
    • 1
  1. 1.Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations