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The Review of Black Political Economy

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 59–69 | Cite as

The measurement and interpretation of black wage and occupational gains: A Reevaluation

  • Steven Shulman
Articles

Conclusion

Important changes have occurred in the economic situation of black Americans over the last two decades. The reported convergence in black and white wages and occupational positions are critically important to understand. An awareness of the tenacity of racism should not lead us to argue that reality is static. At the same time, it would be a mistake to draw extreme conclusions about the crumbling of one of the historical building blocks of the U.S. economy. This article has been particularly motivated by the latter concern.

Keywords

Wage Differential Labor Market Outcome Black Political Economy Occupational Mobility Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    See, for example, Richard B. Freeman,“Decline of Labor Market Discrimination and Economic Analysis,”American Economic Review, 63:280–86 (May 1973); James Smith and Finis Welch,“Black-White Male Wage Ratios: 1960-70,”American Economic Review, 67:323–39 (June 1977); Wayne Vroman,“Changes in the Labor Market Position of Black Men Since 1964,”Proceedings of the 27th Annual Winter Meeting, Madison, Wisc: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1975; and Finis Welch,“Black-White Differences in Returns to Schooling,”American Economic Review, 63:893–907 (Dec. 1973).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    William A. Darity, Jr.,“ Illusions of Black Economic Progress,”The Review of Black Political Economy, 10:153–68 (winter 1980); Robert B. Hill,“The Illusion of Black Economic Progress,”Social Policy, 9:14–25 (Nov.-Dec. 1978); Dorothy K. Newman et al.,Protest, Politics and Prosperity, N.Y.: Pantheon Books, 1978; Michael Reich,Racial Inequality: A Political Economic Analysis, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981; Phyllis A. Wallace et al. eds.,Women, Minorities and Employment Discrimination Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1977.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Darity (1980), op. cit.“CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    William A. Darity, Jr. and Samuel L. Myers, Jr.,“Changes in Black-White Income Inequality, 1968-78: A Decade of Progress?”,The Review of Black Political Economy, 10:354–79 (summer 1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    James P. Smith,“Comments on Papers by Darity-Myers and Jeong,”The Review of Black Political Economy, 10:385 (summer 1980).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Even this conclusion may be doubtful. See Edward Lazear,“The Narrowing of Black-White Wage Differentials is Illusory,”American Economic Review, 69:553–64 (Sept. 1979).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
    Richard B. Freeman,“Have Black Labor Market Gains Been Permanent or Transitory?”, Harvard Institute of Economic Research, Discussion Paper no. 849, Cambridge, Mass., September 1981, p. 5.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barbara Bergmann,“The Shiboleth of the Shrinking Pie,”The Civil Rights Quarterly Perspective (Summer-Fall 1981):33.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bennett Harrison,Urban Economic Development, Washington D.C.: The Urban Institute, 1974: ch. 3.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Joe R. Feagin and Clairece B. Feagin,Discrimination American Style: Institutional Racism and Sexism, Englewood Cliffs N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1978:52–63.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Curtis L. Gilroy,“Job Losers, Leavers, and Entrants: Traits and Trends,”Monthly Labor Review, 96:3–15 (Aug. 1973).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    John P. Fernandez,Black Managers in White Corporations, Washington D.C.: The Urban Institute, 1972; Charles L. Fields and Evelyn S. Freeman,“Black Professionals: The Gap is Not Closing,”MBA, 6:73–86 (Jan. 1972); George Stevens and Penny Marquette,“Black MBAs: Room at the Top?”,MBA, Aug.-Sept. 1978.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Reynolds Farley,“Racial Progress in the Last Two Decades: What Can We Determine About Who Benefitted and Why?”, mimeo, August 1979, p. 12.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Charles L. Betsey,“Differences in Unemployment Experiences Between Blacks and Whites,”American Economic Review, 68:192–97 (May 1978).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Duane E. Leigh and V. Lane Rawlins,“On the Stability of Relative Black-White Unemployment,”Review of Economics and Statistics, 56:150–57 (May 1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gerry DuGuay and George I. Treyez, “The Inequality of Unemployment,” mimeo, 1982.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hill (1978), op. cit.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Julianne M. Malveaux,Unemployment Differentials by Race and Occupation, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1980.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Steven Shulman,“Race, Class and Occupational Stratification: A Critique of William J. Wilson’s The Declining Significance of Race”,Review of Radical Political Economics, 13:21–32 (Fall 1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Robert Pear,“Bias Blamed for High Minority Jobless Rates,”New York Times, Nov. 24, 1982.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Shulman

There are no affiliations available

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