Advertisement

Effect of convective disturbances induced by g-jitter on the periodic precipitation of lysozyme

  • Marcello Lappa
  • L. Carotenuto
Article

Abstract

Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the crystallization process of a protein macromolecular substance under two different conditions: pure diffusive regime and microgravity conditions present on space laboratories. The configuration under investigation consists of a protein reactor and a salt chamber separated by an “interface”. The interface is strictly related to the presence of agarose gel in one of the two chambers. Sedimentation and convection under normal gravity conditions are prevented by the use of gel in the protein chamber (pure diffusive regime). Under microgravity conditions periodic time-dependent accelerations (g-jitter) are taken into account. Novel mathematical models are introduced to simulate the complex phenomena related to protein nucleation and further precipitation (or resolution) according to the concentration distribution and in particular to simulate the motion of the crystals due to g-jitter in the microgravity environment. The numerical results show that gellified lysozyme (crystals “locked” on the matrix of agarose gel) precipitates to produce “spaced deposits”. The crystal formation results modulated in time and in space (Liesegang patterns), due to the non-linear interplay among transport, crystal nucleation and growth. The propagation of the nucleation front is characterized by a wavelike behaviour. In microgravity conditions (without gel), g-jitter effects act modifying the phenomena with respect to the on ground gellified configuration. The role played by the direction of the applied sinusoidal acceleration with respect to the imposed concentration gradient (parallel or perpendicular) is investigated. It has a strong influence on the dynamic behaviour of the depletion zones and on the spatial distribution of the crystals. Accordingly the possibility to obtain better crystals for diffraction analyses is discussed.

Keywords

Lysozyme International Space Station Microgravity Condition Depletion Zone Vortex Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

7. References

  1. [1]
    Ramachandran N., Baugher Ch. R., Naumann R.J., “Modeling flows and transport in protein crystal growth,”, Microgravity sci. technol. Vol. VIII/3, p. 170 (1995)Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Qi J., Wakayama N. I., “Solute convection during the whole process of protein crystal growth”, J. Cryst. Growth, Vol. 219, p. 465, (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Otàlora F., Novella M. L., Gavira J. A., Thomas B. R., Garcìa-Ruiz J.M., “Experimental evidence for the stability of the depletion zone around a growing protein crystal under microgravity”, Acta Crys., Vol. D57, p. 412, (2001).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Pusey M. L., Snyder R. S., Naumann R., “Protein crystal growth: growth kinetics for tetragonal lysozyme crystals”, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 261 No. 14, p. 6524, (1986).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Monaco A., Rosenberger F., “Growth and etching kinetics of tetragonal lysozyme”, J. Cryst. Growth, Vol. 129, p. 465, (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Kuznetsov Yu G., Malkin A. J., Greenwood A., McPherson A., “Interferometric studies of growth kinetics and surface morphology in macromolecular crystal growth: canavalin, thaumatin and turnip yellow mosaic virus”, Journal of structural biology, Vol. 114, p. 184, (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Coriell S. R., Chernov A.A., Murray B.T., McFadden G.B., “Step bunching: generalized kinetics”, Journal of Crystal Growth Vol. 183, p. 669, (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Otàlora F., Garcìa-Ruiz J.M., “Crystal growth studies in microgravity with the APCF: Computer simulation and transport dynamics”, Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 182, p. 141, (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Henisch H.K., Garcà-Ruiz J.M., “Crystal growth in gels and Liesegang ring formation: Crystallization criteria and successive precipitation”, Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 75, p. 203, (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Henisch H. K., “Periodic Precipitation: a microcomputer analysis of transport and reaction processes in diffusion media with software development”, Pergamon Press, (1991).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Galkin O., Vekilov P. G., “Direct determination of the nucleation rates of protein crystals”, J. Phys. Chem. B, Vol. 103, p. 10965, (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Monti R., Langbein D., Favier J.J., “Influence of residual accelerations on fluid physics and material science experiments”, in Fluid and material Science in Space, H.U. Walter ed., (1987).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Mc Fadden G.B., Coriell S.R., “Solutal convection during directional solidification”, AIAA paper 88-3635-CP, (1988).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Schneider S., Straub J., “Influence of the Prandtl number on laminar natural convection in a cylinder caused by g-jitter”, J. Crystal Growth, Vol. 46, p. 125, (1989).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Alexander J.I.D., “Low gravity experiment sensitivity to residual acceleration: a review”, Microgravity Sci. and Tech., Vol. 3, p. 52, (1990).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Ramachandran N., “G-jitter convection in enclosures”, 9th International Heat Transfer Conference, paper 8-MC-03, Jerusalem, Israel (August 1990)Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Monti R., Savino R., “The basis and the recent developments of OMA and its applications to microgravity”. Microgravity Quarterly Vol. 5, No.1, p. 13, (1994).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Monti R., Savino R., “A new approach to g-level tolerability for Fluid and Material Science experiments”. Acta Astronautica Vol. 37, p. 313, (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Monti R., Savino R., “Influence of g-jitter on fluid physics experimentation on-board the International Space Station”. ESA SP-385, p. 215, (1996).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Monti R., Savino R., “Microgravity experiment acceleration tolerability on space orbiting laboratories”, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets Vol. 33, No.5, p. 707, (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Savino R., Monti R., “Convection induced by residual-g and g-jitters in diffusion experiments”, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer Vol.42, p. 111, (1999).CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Gershuni G.Z., Zhukhovitskii E.M., Yurkov Yu. S., “Vibrational thermal convection in a rectangular cavity”, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Mekh. Zhidk. Gaza Vol. 4, p. 94, (1982).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Lappa M.; “Strategies for parallelizing the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on the Cray T3E”; Science and Supercomputing at CINECA, M. Voli Editor, Bologna, p. 326, (1997).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Piccolo C., Lappa M., Tortora A., Castagnolo D., Carotenuto L., “Nonlinear behaviour of lysozyme crystallization”, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications Vol. 314, No. 1–4, p. 636, (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Lappa M., Castagnolo D., Carotenuto L., “Sensitivity of the non-linear dynamics of lysozyme ‘Liesegang Rings’ to small asymmetries”, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications Vol. 314, No. 1–4, p. 623, (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Z-Tec Publishing 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MARS CenterNapoliItaly

Personalised recommendations