American Journal of Potato Research

, Volume 81, Issue 5, pp 317–326 | Cite as

Evidence of potato virus Y asymptomatic clones in diploid and tetraploid potato-breeding populations



Potato virus Y (PVY) is a potyvirus affecting potato productivity by reducing yield and quality. To reduce the amount of PVY in potato production systems, state seed certification agencies have established threshold criteria, which simultaneously increase quality. Research has documented several commercial cultivars lacking symptom expression of PVY despite infection. The presence of PVY asymptomatic clones in production and breeding populations is particularly important because it may provide an inoculum source in breeders’ seed and this reduces the efficiency of selection. The objectives of this research were to determine to what extent PVY asymptomatic clones are present in potato-breeding populations, and if PVY expression is influenced by the environment. After exposure to PVY, genotypes from different 2x and 4x populations were evaluated for the presence of PVY both visually and by ELISA assay. PVY asymptomatic genotypes were identified in both 2x and 4x populations. Chi square indicated dependency between PVY symptom expression and (1) ploidy, (2) genetically distinct 4x germplasm enhancement populations, and (3) expression in a north temperatevs. tropical environment using 4x progeny from five half-sib families. Dependency was not found between two 4x genetically related sub-populations and PVY asymptomatic expression. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that clones within family, families, location, and the interaction of location by clone were significant sources of variation for PVY symptom expression, ELISA, and visual evaluation. PVY asymptomatic clones were present in both 2x and 4x populations with higher frequencies in a north temperate compared to a tropical environment, suggesting that PVY symptom expression may be influenced by the environment.

Additional Key Words

ELISA potato breeding potato virus Y PVY Solanum tuberosum L. symptom expression 



analysis of variance


enzyme linked immunosorbent assay


first division restitution


haploid × species


multiple interspecific hybrids


potato virus Y


second division restitution


El virus Y de la papa (PVY) es un potivirus que afecta la productividad reduciendo el rendimiento y la calidad. Con el objeto de disminuir la presencia de PVY en los sistemas de producción de papa, las agencias de certificación de los estados han establecido un criterio límite, según el cual se incrementa simultáneamente la calidad. La investigación ha documentado varios cultivares comerciales que no presentan síntomas de PVY a pesar de estar infectados. La presencia de clones asintomáticos en la producción y en las poblaciones en mejoramiento es particularmente importante porque pueden llevar consigo una fuente de inóculo en la semilla de los mejoradores, lo cual reduce la eficiencia de la selección. El objetivo de esta investigación ha sido determinar hasta que punto los clones asintomáticos afectados de PVY están presente en las poblaciones de mejoramiento, y si la expresión del PVY es influenciada por el medio ambiente. Después de exponer los genotipos de poblaciones 2x y 4x al PVY, fueron evaluados para presencia de PVY, tanto visualmente como por la prueba de ELISA. Los genotipos asintomáticos fueron identificados en ambas poblaciones 2x y 4x. La prueba de Chi cuadrado indicó dependencia entre la expresión de síntomas de PVY y (1) ploidía, (2) incremento del germoplasma 4x genéticamente differente y (3) la expresión en un ambiente nórdico templadovs. uno tropical, utilizando progenie 4x de 5 familias semi-emparentadas. No se encontró dependencia entre dos sub-poblaciones 4x genéticamente relacionadas y la expresión asintomática de PVY. El análisis de variancia (ANOVA) indicó que los clones dentro de una familia, familias, localidades, y la interacción de localidad por clon, son una fuente significativa de variación para la expresión de los síntomas, ELISA, y evaluación visual. Los clones asintomáticos de PVY estuvieron presentes en ambas poblaciones 2x y 4x, con altas frecuencias en clima nórdico templado comparado con un ambiente tropical, lo que sugiere que la expresión de los síntomas de PVY puede estar influenciada por el medio ambiente.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Allard RW. 1960. Principles of plant breeding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York. pp. 385–399.Google Scholar
  2. Bamberg JB, and MW Martin. 1993. Inventory of tuber-bearingSolanum speciescatalog of potato germplasm. Potato Introduction Station. Sturgeon Bay. WI.Google Scholar
  3. Barker H. 1993. Incidence of potato virus Y infection in seed and ware tubers of the potato cv. Record. Ann Appl Biol 124:179–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beemster ABR, and A Rosendaal. 1972. Potato viruses: properties and symptoms.In: JA de Bokx (ed), Viruses of Potatoes and Seed Potato Production. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands. pp. 115–118.Google Scholar
  5. Brigneti G, J Garcia-Mas, and DC Baulcombe. 1997. Molecular mapping of the potato virus Y resistance gene Rysto in potato. Theor Appl Genet 94:198–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cockerham G. 1970. Genetical studies on resistance to potato viruses X and Y. Heredity 25:309–348.Google Scholar
  7. de Bokx JA, and H Huttinga. 1981. Potato virus Y.In: BD Harrison, and AF Murant (eds), Description of Plant Viruses, No. 242. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew and Association of Applied Biologist, Wellesbourne, Warwick, UK.Google Scholar
  8. Draper MD, JS Pasche, and NC Gudmestad. 2002. Factors influencing PVY development and disease expression in three potato cultivars. Am J Potato Res 79:155–165.Google Scholar
  9. Ellis P, RS Smith, G Bowler, and DJ Mackenzie. 1996. Production of monoclonal antibodies for detection and identification of strains of potato virus Y. Canadian J Plant Path 18:64–70.Google Scholar
  10. Fowler DB, C Breton, AE Limin, S Mahfoozi, and F Sarhan. 2001. Photoperiod and temperature interactions regulate low-temperature-induced gene expression in barley. Plant Phisiol 127:1676–1681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. German TL. 2001. Potato virus Y.In: WR Stevenson, R Loria, GD Franc, DP Weingartner (eds), Compendium of Potato Diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 69–71.Google Scholar
  12. Hämäläinen HJ, VA Sorri, KN Watanabe, C Gebhardt, and JPT Valkonen. 1998. Molecular examination of a chromosome region that controls resistance to potato Y and A potyviruses in potato. Theor Appl Genet 96:1036–1043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hämäläinen HJ, KN Watanabe, JPT Valkonen, A Arihara, RL Plaisted, E Pehu, L Miller, and SA Slack. 1997. Mapping and markerassisted-selection for a gene for extreme resistance to potato virus Y. Theor Appl Genet 94:192–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hane DC, and PB Hamm. 1999. Effects of seedborne potato virus Y infection in two potato cultivars expressing mild disease symptoms. Plant Dis 83:43–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johansen RH, B Farnsworth, N Gudmestad, GA Secor, DC Nelson, A Thompson, AA Boe, and PH Orr. 1988. Russet Norkotah-a new russet potato variety. N Dakota Farm Res 46:1, 11:24.Google Scholar
  16. Jones DAC, JAT Woodford, SC Main, D Pallett, and H Barker. 1996. The role of volunteer potatoes in spread of potato virus Yn in ware crops of cv. Record. Ann Appl Biol 129:471–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Llamas-Llamas ME, E Zavaleta-Mejia, VA Gonzalez-Hernandez, L Cervantes-Diaz, JA Santizo-Rincon, and DL Ochoa-Martinez. 1998. Effect of temperature on symptom expression and accumulation of tomato spotted wilt virus in different host species. Plant Path 47:341–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Love SL, R Novy, DL Corsini, JJ Pavek, AR Mosley, RE Thornton, SR James, and DC Hane. 2002. Gem Russet: a long russet potato variety with excellent fresh market and french fry processing quality. Am J Potato Res 79:25–31.Google Scholar
  19. Mahfoozi S, AE Limin, and DB Fowler. 2001. Influence of vernalization and photoperiod responses on cold hardiness in winter cereals. Crop Sci 41:1006–1011.Google Scholar
  20. Mok DWS, and SJ Peloquin. 1975. Breeding value of 2n pollen (diplandroids) in tetraploid × diploid crosses in potatoes. Theor Appl Genet 46:307–314.Google Scholar
  21. Mollov DS, and CA Thill. 2004. Heritability of asymptomatic expression to potato virus Y. Am J Potato Res 81:75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. National Potato Council. 2001. 2001-2002 Potato Statistical Year Book. National Potato Council, Greenwood Village, CO.Google Scholar
  23. Novy RG, A Nasruddin, DW Ragsdale, and EB Radcliffe. 2002. Genetic resistances to potato leafroll virus, potato virus Y, and green peach aphid in progeny ofSolanum etuberosum. Am J Potato Res 79:9–18.Google Scholar
  24. Radcliffe EB, and DW Ragsdale. 2002. Aphid-transmitted potato viruses: the importance of understanding vector biology. Am J Potato Res 79:353–386.Google Scholar
  25. Ragsdale DW, EB Radcliffe, and CD Difonzo. 2001. Epidemiology and field control of PVY and PLRV.In: G Loebenstein, PH Berger, AA Brunt, and RH Lawson (eds), Virus and Virus Like Diseases of Potatoes and Production of Seed Potatoes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 237–270.Google Scholar
  26. Rykbost KA, R Voss, SR James, AR Mosley, BA Charlton, DC Hane, RH Johansen, SL Love, and RE Thornton. 2001. Winema: An early maturing, red-skinned cultivar for fresh market. Am J Potato Res 78:371–375.Google Scholar
  27. Salazar LE 1996. Potato viruses and their control. International Potato Center, Lima, Peru. pp. 3–6, 139–159.Google Scholar
  28. Sigvald R. 1984. The relative efficiency of some aphid species as vectors of potato virus Yo (PVYo). Potato Res 27:285–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Solomon-Blackburn RM, and H Barker. 2001. A review of host majorgene resistance to potato viruses X, Y, A and V in potato: genes, genetics and mapped locations. Heredity 86:8–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Steel RGD, and JH Torrie. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics a biometrical approach. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. pp. 495–502.Google Scholar
  31. Sturz AV, JF Diamond, and JG Stewart. 1997. Evaluation of mosaic expression as an indirect measures of the incidence of PVYo in potato cv. Shepody. Can J Plant Path 19:145–148.Google Scholar
  32. Sutula CL, JM Gillett, SM Morrissey, and DC Ramsdell. 1986. Interpreting ELISA data and establishing the positive-negative threshold. Plant Dis 70:722–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tai GCC, and DA Young. 1984. Early generation selection for important agronomic characteristics in a potato breeding population. Am Potato J. 61:419–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xenophontos S, DJ Robinson, MFB Dale, and DJF Brown. 1998. Evidence for persistent, symptomless infection of some potato cultivars with tobacco rattle virus. Potato Res 41:255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Horticultural ScienceUniversity of MinnesotaSt. Paul

Personalised recommendations