Advertisement

Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 108–114 | Cite as

Effect of iron deficiency on developing rat brain

  • Jyoti Batra
  • P. K. Seth
Case Report

Abstract

Iron deficiency evolves, slowly through several stages. Early iron deficiency caused a depletion in iron stores as shown by a reduction in the levels of hepatic non heme iron (44%) in the 7 days old pups born to iron deficient mothers. The hemoglobin levels and PCV (packed cell volume) were significantly reduced only after the age of three weeks. The activities of GABA (γ-amino butyric acid) shunt enzymes viz. GDH, GAD and GABA-T (glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase, respectively) and GABA content were found to decrease during gestation and/or lactation iron deficiency at 1 week (wk), 2wk, 3wk and 4wk of age in the developing rat brains. However GABA binding showed a significant increase at different age groups. The iron deficiency during lactational exposure showed significant alteration in most of the parameters only at the age of 3 weeks onwards. On rehabilitation with iron supplemented diet for 2 weeks, these altered parameters could not attain corresponding control values. A prolonged iron deficiency causing alterations in GABA may lead to neurological and behavioral alterations.

Keywords

Iron deficiency GABA metabolism Brain-γ-amino butyric acid 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Rush D. (2000) Nutrition and maternal mortality in the developing world, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72 (suppl), 2125–2405.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chakravarty I., Ghosh K. (2000) Micronutrient malnutrition—present status and future remedie. J. Indian Med. Association 98(9): 539–42.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beards J. L., Conners J. D. and Jone B. C. (1993) Brain iron, location and function, Prog. Food Nutrition Science, 17 (3), 183–221.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ray Yip (2000) Significance of an abnormally low and high hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy: special consideration of iron nutrition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 72 (Suppl). 272s-9s.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Larkin E.C. and Rao C.A. (1990) Importance of fetal and neonatal iron; adequacy for normal development of central nervous system. In; Brain behavior and iron in the infant diet (Dobbing J ed.) pp 43–63, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beard J. L. (1999) Iron deficiency and neural development: an update. Arch. Latinoam Nutr, 49 (3 suppl 2): 34s-39s.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Youdim MBH, Ben Shacher D. and Yehuda S. (1989). Putative biological mechanism of the effect of iron deficiency on brain biochemistry by and behavior. Am. J. Clin. Nutr 50, 607–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Taneja V, Mishra K. and Agarwal K. N. (1986). effect of early iron deficiency in the rat on gamma amino byturic acid shunt in brain. J. Neurochem 46, 1670–1674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hubbel R. B., Mendel K. B. and Wakeman A. J. (1937) A new salt mixture for use in experimental diets, J. Nutr. 14, 273–285.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Williams R. B. and Mills C. F. (1970) The experimental production of Zinc deficiency in rat, Br. J. Nutr. 24 989–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Seth P. K., Agarwal A. K. and Bondy S. C. (1981) Biochemical changes in the brain. Consequent to dietary exposure of developing and nature rat to chlordecone (Kapone). Toxicol Appl. Pharmacol. 59, 262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dravid A. R. and Jelle K. C. (1985). J. Neurochem.,12, 837–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rajalakshmi R Parameshwarn N. and Ramakrishnan C. V. (1974) Effect of different levels of dietary protein on brain glutamate dehydrogenase and decarboxylase in young albino rats. J. Neurochem.23, 123–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guest G. M. and Siler V. E. (1934) A centrifuge method for the determinahon of cells in blood. J. Lab. Clin. Med.19, 757–768.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dacil J. W., Lewis S. M. (1975) Practical Haemotology, 5th edition. Eds Churchill Livingston London.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lowry O. H., Rosenberg N. J., Faw A. L., Randall R. J. (1951) Protein measurement with Folin reagent, J. Biol. Chem. 193, 265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Scatchard G. (1949) Anna New York AcadSci 51. 660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dallman P.R. (1982) Manifestation of iron deficiency. Semin. Hematol., 19, 1–30.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hall J. M. (1988). The distribution of iron in brain. In Brain iron neurochemistry and behavioural aspects (Youdim M. B. H. ed) PPU-24 Taylor and Francis, London U.K.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beard J. L. (2001) Iron Biology in immune Function, muscle metabolism and neuronal functioning. J. Nutr.131, 5685–5805.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rocangliolo M, Garrido M, Welliamson A, Lozoff B. and Peirano (1996). Delayed Maturation of auditory brain stem responses in iron deficient anemic infants. Pediatr. Res., 39: 20A (ABS).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Clinical BIochemists of India 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jyoti Batra
    • 1
  • P. K. Seth
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistrySantosh Medical CollegeGhaziabad
  2. 2.Industrial Toxicology Research CentreLucknow

Personalised recommendations