Economic Botany

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 3–29 | Cite as

The control of plant diseases by chemotherapy

  • J. E. Livingston
  • M. T. Hilborn


Successful chemotherapy is obtained at present with the antibiotics, such as streptomycin, for certain bacterial and virus diseases of plants. Promising results have been obtained with chemotherapeutic chemicals other than the antibiotics in the control of plant diseases caused by species of such fungi as Botrytis, Fusarium, and Phytophthora.


Economic Botany Tobacco Mosaic Virus Phytophthora Stem Rust Bacterial Blight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Acosta, A. C., and J. E. Livingston. Effects of calcium sulfamate and sodium sulfanilate on small grains and on stem rust development. Phytopathology.45: 503–506. 1955.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alcorn, S. M., and P. A. Ark. The effect of candicidin on plant pathogenic fungi. Pl. Dis. Reptr.38: 705–709. 1954.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Altman, J., and B. H. Davis. Field tests with streptomycin nitrate for control of bacterial leaf spot of pepper. Phytopathology.45: 183. 1955. (abs.)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson, A. L. Use of antibiotics and other chemicals for control of common and fuscous blights of beans. Phytopathology.47: 515. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anderson, H. W., and I. Nienow. Effect of streptomycin on higher plants. Phytopathology.37: 1. 1947. (abs.)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anderson, P. J. Streptomycin for control of blue mold and bed rot of tobacco. Phytopathology.46: 240. 1956. (abs.)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ark, P. A. Use of streptomycin dust to control fire blight. Pl. Dis. Reptr.37: 404–406. 1953.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    —, and S. M. Alcorn. Antibiotics as bactericides and fungicides against diseases of plants. Pl. Dis. Reptr.40: 85–92. 1956.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    —, and J. W. Oswald. Antibiotic potentialities of some strains ofStreptomyces scabies. Phytopathology.41: 1034. 1951.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    —, and J. P. Thompson. Action of certain antibiotics on downy mildew of cucumber. Phytopathology.46: 634. 1956.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    —, and E. M. Wilson. Movement of streptomycin into plant tissues from streptomycin-pyrophyllite formulations. Phytopathology.46: 634. 1956a. (abs.)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    —, and E. M. Wilson. Availability of streptomycin in dust formulations. Pl. Dis. Reptr.40: 332–334. 1956b.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Baver, G. R. The action of streptomycin onBacterium lactis aerogenes. Jour. Gen. Microbio.5: 1–17. 1951.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beach, W. S., and H. B. Engle. Tobacco wildfire control by streptomycin nitrate. Pl. Dis. Reptr.39: 15–16. 1955.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Beckman, C. H., and F. L. Howard. Chemical inhibition of springwood development in relation to infection and symptoms of the Dutch elm disease. Phytopathology.47: 3–4. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bega, Robery. Biological control of Fusarium, wilt of sweet potato. Phytopathology.44: 482. 1954. (abs.)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Berliner, Martha D., and L. S. Olive. Meiosis inGymnosporagium and the cytological effects of certain antibiotic substances. Science117: 652–653. 1953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bonde, Reiner. Preliminary studies on the control of bacterial decay of the potato with antibiotics. Amer. Pot. Jour.30: 143–147. 1953a.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    —. Studies on the control of potato late blight (Phytophthora infestons) with antibiotics. Phytopathology.43: 463–464. 1953b.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    —. Antibiotic treatment of seed potatoes in relation to seed-piece decay, blackleg, plant growth, and yield rate. Pl. Dis. Reptr.39: 120–123. 1955.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    —, and P. DeSouza. Studies on the control of potato bacterial seed-piece decay and blackleg with antibiotics. Amer. Pot. Jour.31: 311–316. 1954.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    —, and J. F. Malcolmson. Studies in the treatments of potato seed-pieces with antibiotic substances in relation to bacterial and fungous decay. Pl. Dis. Reptr.40: 615–619. 1956.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brentzel, W. E. Cereal rust control with fungicides. (A preliminary report). N. D. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bimonthly Bull.16: 102–110. 1954.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    —. Cereal rust control with fungicides. N. D. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bimonthly Bull.17: 142–150. 1955.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brian, P. W., J. M. Wright, J. Stubbs, and A. M. Way. Uptake of antibiotic metabolites of soil microorganisms by plants. Nature167: 347–349. 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brown, J. G., and A. M. Boyle. Penicillin treatment of crown gall. Science100: 528. 1944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Caroselli, N. E., and F. L. Howard. Response of diseased maple trees to chemotherapy and fertilization. Phytopathology.32: 21. 1942. (abs.)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    —, and A. W. Feldman. Dutch elm disease chemotherapy with carolate and related formulations. Phytopathology.41: 6. 1951. (abs.)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cation, Donald. Experiments with Actidione for control of cherry leaf spot (Coccomyces hiemalis). Phytopathology.43: 468. 1953. (abs.)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Celino, M. S., and D. Gottlieb. Control of bacterial wilt of tomatoes byBacillus polymyxa. Phytopathology.42: 4. 1952. (abs.)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Corden, M. E., and A. E. Dimond. Relation of plant-growth regulating properties of naphthalene aliphatic acids to their activity in inducing disease resistance. Phytopathology.47: 518. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cox, R. S. Compatibility between streptomycin-Terramycin formulation and copper in the control of bacterial blight of celery. Pl. Dis. Reptr.39: 484–486. 1955.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    —. Additive effect of Agri-mycin and copper in the control of bacterial spot of pepper. Phytopathology.47: 6. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Crowdy, S. H. Chemotherapeutant effect of certain aryloxyaliphatic acids. Phytopathology.41: 8. 1951. (abs.)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    —, and Mary-Elizabeth Davies. Studies on systemic fungicides. II. Behavior of groups of reported chemotherapeutants. Phytopathology.42: 127–131. 1952.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    —, and D. Pramer. Movement of antibiotics in higher plants. Chem. & Ind. No. 7: 160–162. 1955.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    —, and R. L. Wain. Studies on systemic fungicides. I. Fungicidal properties of the aryloxalkylcarboxylic acids. Ann. Appl. Biol.38: 318–333. 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Daines, R. H. Bacterial spot of peach(Xanthomonas pruni) and its control by use of captan and streptomycin. Pl. Dis. Reptr.40: 335–336. 1956.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    —, and R. Gray. Streptomycin foliage sprays and control of bacterial spot of peach. Phytopathology.47: 448. 1957.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Darpuox, H., and A. Faivre-Amiot. Action curative de quelques substances antibiotiques et d’un produit organo-mercurique sur la travelure du Pommier. C. R. Acad. Agric. Fr.37: 136–139. 1951. (Rev. Appl. Mycol.31: 244. 1952.)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Davis, D. Chemotherapy of tobacco mosaic virus. Phytopathology.42: 465. 1952a. (abs.)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    —. Inducing disease resistance with plant growth-regulators. Phytopathology.42: 465. 1952b. (abs.)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    —, and A. E. Dimond. Altering resistance to disease with synthetic organic chemicals. Phytopathology.42: 563–567. 1952.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    —, and A. E. Dimond. Inducing disease resistance with plant growth-regulators. Phytopathology.43: 137–140. 1953.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    —, and A. E. Dimond. Site of disease resistance induced by plant-growth regulators in tomato. Phytopathology.46: 551–552. 1956.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    —, and Lo Chien-Pen. The chemotherapeutic activity of unsubstituted heterocyclic compounds. Phytopathology.44: 486. 1954a. (abs.)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    —, Lo Chien-Pen, and A. E. Dimond. Chemotherapeutic activity of unsubstituted heterocyclic compounds. Phytopathology.44: 680–683. 1954b.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dickson, J. G., G. R. Grimm, and A. L. Hooker. Stem rust control with fungicides. Phytopathology.42: 465. 1952.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dimond, A. E. Oxyquinoline benzoate aids supression of symptoms of Dutch elm disease. Phytopathology.37: 848. 1947.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    —, and R. A. Chapman. The chemotherapeutic properties of two compounds against fusarium wilts. Phytopathology.42: 11. 1951. (abs.)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    —, and M. C. Corden. Reduction and promotion of the development of fusarium wilt of tomato by gibberellic acid. Phytopathology.47: 519. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    —, and David Davis. 2-carboxymethylmercaptobenzothiazole salts as chemotherapeutants for plant diseases. Phytopathology.42: 7. 1952.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    —, and D. Davis. The chemotherapeutic activity of benzothiazole and related compounds for fusarium wilt of tomato. Phytopathology.43: 43–44. 1953.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    -, David Davis, R. A. Chapman, and E. M. Stoddard. Plant chemotherapy as evaluated by the fusarium wilt assay on tomatoes. Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 557. 1952.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    -, G. H. Plumb, E. M. Stoddard, and J. G. Horsfall. An evaluation of chemotherapy and vector control by insecticides for combating Dutch elm disease. Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 531. 1949.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dufrenoy, Jean, et al. Effect of streptomycin on plant cells. Phytopathology.39: 859–860. 1949. (abs.)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dunegan, J. C., J. R. Keinholz, R. A. Wilson, and W. T. Morris. Control of pear blight by a streptomycin-terramycin mixture. Pl. Dis. Reptr.38: 666–669. 1954.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dye, M. H. Intake of streptomycin by peach leaves. Nature178: 551–552. 1956a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    —. Studies on the uptake and translocation of streptomycin by peach seedlings. Ann. Appl. Biol.44: 567–575. 1956b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dye, D. W., and M. H. Dye. Effectiveness of therapeutants including antibiotics in preventing development of blast of stone fruits (Pseudomonas syringae von Hall). New Zealand Jour. Sci. & Tech.A36: 21–26. 1954.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Epps, W. M. Control of potato seed-piece decay in South Carolina 1952–1956. Pl. Dis. Reptr.41: 148–150. 1957.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Felber, Irma M., and C. L. Hamner. Control of mildew on bean plants by means of an antibiotic. Bot. Gaz.110: 324–325. 1948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fink, H. C., O. D. Burke, R. S. Kirby, and L. P. Nichols. Potato seed-piece treatments in Pennsylvania in 1955. Pl. Dis. Reptr.40: 125. 1955.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fischer, C. D. Pesticides: Past, present and prospects. Part 3. Fungicides, herbicides. Chem. Week, Nov. 17, 1956.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fitzgerald, R. J., and F. Bernheim. The effect of streptomycin on the formation of adaptive enzymes. Jour. Bact.55: 765–766. 1948.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ford, Jared H., and Byron E. Leach. Actidione, an antibiotic fromStreptomyces griseus. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc.70: 1223–1225. 1948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gassner, G., and K. Hassebrauk. Untersuchgen zur Frage der Getreiderostbekämpfung mit chemischen Mitteln. Phytopathology. Z.9: 427–454. 1936.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Goodman, R. N. Fire blight control with sprays of Agrimycin, a streptomycinterramycin combination. Pl. Dis. Reptr.38: 874–878. 1954a.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    —. Antibiotics for control of fire blight. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.64: 186–190. 1954b.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    —, and D. D. Hemphill. The effects of indole-3-acetic acid on the plant disease-inhibiting properties of antibiotics. Science119: 347–348. 1954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gopalkrishnan, K. S., and J. A. Jump. The antibiotic activity of thiolutin in the chemotherapy of the fusarium wilt of tomatoes. Phytopathology.42: 338–340. 1952.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gray, R. A. Increasing the effectiveness of streptomycin against the common blight of beans with glycerin. PL. Dis. Reptr.39: 567–568. 1955a.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    —. Activity of an antiviral agent fromNocardia in two viruses in intact plants. Phytopathology.45: 281–285. 1955b.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    —. Increasing the absorption of streptomycin by leaves and flowers with glycerol. Phytopathology.46: 105–111. 1956.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    —. The downward translocation of antibiotics in plants. Phytopathology.48: 71–78. 1958.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Greaney, F. J. Field experiments on the prevention of cereal rusts by sulphur dusting (1930-32). Sci. Agr.14: 496–511. 1934a.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    - Studies in cereal diseases XI. The prevention of cereal rusts by the use of fungicidal dusts. Canad. Dept. Agric. Bull. 171. n.s. 1934b.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hacker, Robert G., and John R. Vaughn. Cycloheximide analogues cause preinfection resistance toPuccinia graminis var.tritici in spring wheat. Phytopathology.47: 14. 1957a. (abs.)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hacker, R. G., and J. R. Vaughn. Chemically induced resistance to stem rust of wheat by derivatives of Acti-dione. Pl. Dis. Reptr.41: 442–446. 1957b.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hamilton, J. M., and M. Szkolnik. Factors involved in the performance of Cycloheximide (Actidione) againstCoccomyces hiemalis. Phytopathology.43: 109. 1953.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    —, —, and E. Sondheimer. Systemic control of cherry leaf spot fungus by foliar sprays of Actidione derivatives. Science123: 1175. 1956.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hassebrauk, K. Untersuchungen über die Einwirkung von Sulfonamiden und Sulfonen auf Getreideroste. III. Untersuchungen über den Wirkungsmechanismus von Sulfonamiden und Sulfonen. Phytopathology. Z.19: 56–78. 1952.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Heggested, H. E., and E. E. Clayton. Control of tobacco wildfire with streptomycin sulfate. Pl. Dis. Reptr.38: 661–665. 1954.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hemphill, D. D., and R. N. Goodman. Effects of plant growth regulating substances on control ofErwinia amylovora by streptomycin and terramycin. Science122: 122. 1955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Henry, R. J. The mode of action of sulfonamides. Pub. Josiah Macy Jr. Found.2: 1–72. 1944.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Henry, A. W., R. L. Millar, and E. A. Peterson. Control of covered smut of wheat by rapid seed treatment with an antibiotic. Science115: 90–91. 1952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    —, E. A. Peterson, and R. L. Millar. Compatibility of Acti-dione and Orthocide in the treatment of seed. Phytopathology.43: 461. 1953.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Heuberger, J. W., and P. L. Poulos. Control of fire blight and frog-eye leaf spot (Black rot) diseases of apples in Delaware in 1952. Pl. Dis. Reptr.37: 81–83. 1953.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hilborn, M. T. Effect of various chemicals on infection byRhizoctonia solani andVerticillium albo-atrum. Phytopathology.43: 475. 1953. (abs.)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hoffman, P. E. Screening chemotherapeutants for control of oak wilt. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci.58: 139–147. 1951.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hoffman, Paul. Early trials on oak wilt chemotherapy. Phytopathology.42: 11. 1952.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hoffman, P. F. Chemicals for therapy of oak wilt. Phytopathology.43: 475. 1953. (abs.)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Holmes, F. O. Preventive and curative effects of thiouracil treatments in mosaichypersensitive tobacco. Phytopathology.44: 492–493. 1954. (abs.)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Horner, C. E., and C. R. Maier. Antibiotics eliminate systemic downy mildew from hops. Phytopathology.47: 525. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Horsfall, J. G., and A. E. Dimond. Plant Chemotherapy. Ann. Rev. Microbiol.5: 209–222. 1951a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    —, and A. E. Dimond. Plant chemotherapy. Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci.13: 338–341. 1951b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    —, and S. Rich. Fungitoxicity of heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst.16: 313–347. 1951.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hotson, H. H. Some chemotherapeutic agents for wheat stem rust. Phytopathology.43: 659–662. 1953.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Howard, F. L. Antidoting toxin ofPhytophthora cactorum as a means of plant disease control. Science94: 345. 1941a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    -. The bleeding canker disease of hardwoods and possibilities of its control. Proc. 8th Western Shade Tree Conf. 1–10. 1941b.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    —, and M. B. Sorrell. Cationic phenyl mercury compounds as specific apple-scab eradicants on foliage. Phytopathology.33: 1114–1115. 1943. (abs.)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hsia, Yu-Tien, and J. J. Christensen, Effect of 2, 4-D on seedling blight of wheat caused byHelmiwthosporium sativum. Phytopathology.41: 1011–1021. 1951.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ibrahim, I. A. Effect of 2, 4-D on stem rust development in oats. Phytopathology.41: 951–954. 1951.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kalmus, H., and B. Kassanis. Reduction by carbon dioxide of susceptibility of beans to tobacco necrosis viruses. Nature 154 (3916): 641–642. 1944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    KenKnight, Glenn. Chemotherapy of the peach rosette virus with antibiotics. Phytopathology45: 348–349. 1955. (abs.)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kirby, R. S. Control of tobacco wildfire with streptomycin preparations. Pl. Dis. Reptr.39: 14. 1955.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kirkpatrick, H. C, and R. C. Lindner. Studies concerning chemotherapy of two plant viruses. Phytopathology.44: 529–532. 1954.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Klemmer, H. W., A. J. Riker, and O. N. Allen. Inhibition of grown gall by selected antibiotics. Phytopathology.45: 618–625. 1955.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kornfeld, E. C, R. G. Jones, and T. V. Parke. The structure and chemistry of Acti-dione, an antibiotic fromStreptomyces griseus. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc.71: 150. 1949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Krasil’nilov, N. A. Antibiotics in plant cultivation (trans. title). Priroda, Moskva41: 17–27. 1952. (Rev. Appl. Micol. 32: 140. 1953).Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Krupka, L. R., and D. F. Crossan. Studies on the use of antibiotics for the control of bacterial spot of pepper. Phytopathology.45: 465. 1955. (abs.)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kuc, J. E., B. Williams, and J. R. Shay. Increase of resistance to apple scab following injection of host with phenylthiourea and D-phenylalanine. Phytopathology.47: 21–22. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Leben, G, and D. C. Arny. Seed treatment experiments with helixin B. Phytopathology.42: 469. 1952. (abs.)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    —, D. C. Arny, D. C. Arny and G. W. Keitt. Small grain seed treatment with the antibiotic, Helixin B. Phytopathology.43: 391–394. 1953.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    —, D. C. Arny, and G. W. Keitt. Effectiveness of certain antibiotics for the control of seed-borne diseases of small grains. Phytopathology.44: 704–707. 1954.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    —, and R. W. Fulton. Effect of certain antibiotics on lesion production by two plant viruses. Phytopathology.42: 331–334. 1952.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    —, and G. W. Keitt. The effect of an antibiotic substance on apple leaf infection by Venturia inaequalis. Phytopathology.37: 14. 1947.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    —, and G. W. Keitt. Laboratory and greenhouse studies of antimycin preparations as protectant fungicides. Phytopathology.39: 529–540. 1949.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    —, and G. W. Keitt. Studies on the fungicidal activity of helixin Phytopathology.42: 13. 1952.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lemin, A. J., and W. E. Magee. Degradation of cycloheximide derivatives in plants. Pl. Dis. Reptr.41: 447–448. 1957.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    LeTourneau, D. L., J. G. McLean, and J. W. Guthrie. Effects of some phenols and quinones on growth in vitro of V erticillium albo-atrum. Phytopathology.47: 602–606. 1957.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    —, —, and —. Effect of some phenols and quinones on growth in culture of Verticillium albo-atrum. Phytopathology.46: 638. 1956. (abs.)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Leukel, R. W., and J. W. Mitchell. Smut control in sorghum with the antibiotic complex F-17. Pl. Dis. Reptr.40: 1073. 1956.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Levine, M. N. Chemical control of cereal rusts. Report of the international wheat stem rust conference, p. 105–106. 1953.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Limmasset, P., F. Levieil, and M. Sechet. Influence d’une phytohormone de synthese sur le development des virus X et Y de la Pome de terre chez le Tabac. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci.227: 643–645. 1948. (Rev. Appl. Mycol. 28: 35. 1948.)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Livingston, J. E. The control of leaf and stem rust of wheat with chemotherapeutants. Phytopathology.43: 496–499. 1953.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Locke, Seth B. Studies on the chemotherapy of potato virus diseases. Phytopathology.38: 916. 1948. (abs.)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Logsdon, Charles E. The effect of certain antibiotics on potato production and ring rot control in Alaska. Phytopathology.47: 22. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Malcolmson, J. F., and R. Bonde. Studies in the control of bacterial and fungous decay of potato seed-pieces. Pl. Dis. Reptr.40: 708–713. 1956.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Maramorosch, K. Reversal of viruscaused stunting by gibberellic acid. Phytopathology.47: 528. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Marlatt, R. B. Effectiveness of streptomycin as a control for common bacterial blight of Pinto bean. Pl. Dis. Reptr.39: 213–214. 1955.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Mattern, P. J., and J. E. Livingston. The effect of three leaf and stem rust chemotherapeutants on the baking behavior of wheat. Cereal Chem.32: 208–211. 1955.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    McKeen, C. D. The inhibitory activity of extract of Capsicum frutescens on plant virus infections. Canad. Jour. Bot.34: 891–903. 1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    McKeen, W. E. Pear blast on Vancouver island. Phytopathology.45: 629–632. 1955.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    McNew, G. L., and N. K. Sundholm. The fungicidal activity of substituted pyrazoles and related compounds. Phytopathology.39: 721–750. 1949.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Miller, P. M. Control by different streptomycin formulations of fire blight on Bosc pears in Conn. Pl. Dis. Reptr.41: 19–22. 1957.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Millikan, D. F. and H. W. Guengerich. Chemical inhibition of necrotic ring spot in plum. Phytopathology.47: 25. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Mitchell, J. W., W. J. Zaumeyer, and W. P. Anderson. Translocation of streptomycin in bean plants and its effect on bacterial blights. Science115: 114–115. 1952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    —, —, and W. H. Preston, Jr. Movement of streptomycin in bean plants. Phytopathology.43: 480. 1953. (abs.)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    —, —, and W. H. Preston, Jr. Absorption and translocation of streptomycin by bean plants and its effect on the halo and common blight organisms. Phytopathology.44: 25–30. 1954.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Müller, K. O., J. H. E. Mackay, and J. N. Friend. Effect of streptomycin on the host-pathogen relationship of a fungal phytopathogene. Nature174: 878–879. 1954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Murneek, A. E. Thiolutin as a possible inhibitor of fire blight. Phytopathology.42: 57. 1952.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Newton, W. The growth ofPhytophthora species as influenced by para-aminobenzoic acid. Phytopathology.47: 530. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Nichols, C. W. The retarding effect of certain plant hormones on tobacco mosaic symptoms. Phytopathology.42: 579–580. 1952.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    — Thiouracil inhibition of tobacco mosaic virus multiplication. Phytopathology.43: 555–557. 1953.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    — Absorption of thiouracil by tobacco leaf tissue and inhibition of tobacco mosaic virus multiplication. Phytopathology.44: 92–93. 1954.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Ogawa, J. M., and C. Vergara. Effects of cycloheximide on powdery mildew of grapes and brown rot of peach fruits in the laboratory. Phytopathology.45: 695. 1955. (abs.)Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Palm, E. T., and R. A. Young. The compatibility of certain organic fungicides and antibiotics in treatment mixtures as indicated by stability and phytotoxicity. Pl. Dis. Reptr.41: 151–155. 1957.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Paulus, A., and G. H. Starr. Control of loose smut with antibiotics. Agron. Jour.43: 617. 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Phelps, W. R., J. E. Juntz, and A. J. Riker. Antibiotics delay oak wilt symptoms on inoculated northern pin oaks in central Wisconsin. Phytopathology.47: 27. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Pollard, E., and A. E. Dimond. The inactivation of tobacco mosaic virus by ionizing radiation. Phytopathology.46: 214–218. 1956.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Porter, C. A. and Leonard H. Weinstein. Effect of thiouracil on tobacco plants infected with cucumber mosaic virus and on noninfected tobacco plants. Phytopathology.47: 27. 1957a. (abs.)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    —, and —. Effect of thiouracil on C14O2 fixation in healthy tobacco plants and in tobacco plants infected with cucumber mosaic virus. Phytopathology.47: 531–532. 1957b. (abs.)Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    —, and —. Biochemical changes induced by thiouracil in cucumber mosaic virus-infected and non-infected tobacco plants. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst.19: 87–106. 1957c.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Porter, F. M., B. C. Smale, W. H. Preston, Jr. and J. W. Mitchell. Suppression by two substituted carbamates of symptoms induced by southern bean mosaic virus. Phytopathology.47: 179–181. 1957.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Porter, R. H. Seed treatment tests for control of barley loose smut. Pl. Dis. Reptr.40: 106–111. 1956.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Pramer, D. Observations on the uptake and translocation of five actinomycete antibiotics by cucumber seedlings. Ann. Appl. Biol.40: 617–622. 1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Pramer, D., R. S. Robison, and R. L. Starkey. The mode of action of antibiotics in the control of plant disease. Phytopathology.46: 341–342. 1956.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Rich, S. Seedling chemotherapy for the control of lettuce big vein. Phytopathology.44: 503–504. 1954. (abs.)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    — Chemotherapy of lettuce big vein. Pl. Dis. Reptr.40: 414–416. 1956a.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    — Seed treatments to protect corn seedlings against Stewart’s wilt. Pl. Dis. Reptr.40: 417–429. 1956b.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Robison, R. S., R. L. Starker, and O. W. Davidson. Control of bacterial wilt of chrysanthemums with streptomycin. Phytopathology.44: 646–650. 1954.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Rumley, G. E., and W. D. Thomas, Jr. The inactivation of the carnation-mosaic virus. Phytopathology.41: 301–303. 1951.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Schlegel, D. E., A. H. Gold, and T. E: Rawlins. Suppressing effect of radioactive phosphorus on symptoms and virus content of mosaic tobacco plants. Phytopathology.43: 206–209. 1953.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    —, and T. E. Rawlins. Inhibition of tobacco mosaic virus by an antibiotic from an actinomycete. Phytopathology.44: 328–329. 1954.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Schneider, I. R. Comparison of the effect of some antibiotics, antifungal substances and phenyl carbamates on the growth of two vascular parasites in vitro. Pl. Dis. Reptr.41: 436–441. 1957.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Scurti, J. L’ossichinolina nella lotta contro la malattia delgiallume dei Gladioli. (Oxyquinoline in the control of Gladiolus yellows). Ann. Sper. agr. N. S.6: 1715–1720. 1952. (Eng. summary).Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Semeniuk, G. Rust—Is chemical control a possibility? S. D. Farm & Home Res.5: 10–14, 21. 1953.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Sempio, C. Influenze di varie sostanze sul parassitamento: ruggine del Fagiolo, ruggine e mal bianco del Fumento. Riv. Pat. veg.26: 201–278. 1936. (Rev. Appl. Micol. 16: 49–50. 1937.)Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Shaw, L., and G. B. Lucas. Further studies with streptomycin for wildfire control in burley tobacco plant beds, North Carolina, 1957. PI. Dis. Reptr.41: 939–940. 1957.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    —, —, and G. F. Thorne, Jr. Further studies with streptomycin alone and in combination with other chemicals for wildfire control in burley tobacco plant beds, North Carolina, 1956. Pl. Dis. Reptr.41: 99–102. 1957.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    —, and G. T. Thome, Jr. Wildfire control studies in burley tobacco plant beds in North Carolina in 1955. Pl. Dis. Reptr.40: 325–327. 1956.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Shurtleff, M. C. Chemotherapy of turf brown patch. Phytopathology.45: 186. 1955. (abs.)Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Silber, G., and J. Kainski. Glycerol as an adjuvant to a streptomycin sulfate spray for field control of halo blight of red kidney bean. Phytopathology.46: 242. 1956. (abs.)Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Silverman, W. B., and Helen Hart. Antibiotics tested for control of wheat stem rust. Phytopathology.44: 5–6. 1954. (abs.)Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Smith, G. E. Inhibition ofFusarium oxysporum f. lycopersici by a species of Micromonospora isolated from tomato. Phytopathology.47: 33. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Smith, W. L. Seed treatment with streptomycin for the control of bacterial blight of beans. Jour. Colo.-Wyo. Acad. Sci.4: 49. 1949. (abs.)Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Smith, W. L., Jr. Streptomycin sulfate for the reduction of bacterial soft rot of packaged spinach. Phytopathology.45: 88–90. 1955.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Smith, W. L., and R. E. Hardenburg. Antibiotic and other chemical dips reduce discoloration of packaged cole slaw. Phytopathology.44: 389. 1954. (abs.)Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Stahler, L. M., and E. I. Whitehead. The effect of 2, 4-D on potassium nitrate levels in leaves of sugar beets. Science112: 749–751. 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Stakman, E. C, and J. G. Harrar. Principles of plant pathology. The Ronald Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Starr, G. H., D. Burke, W. Smith, R. Hildreth, and A. Paulus. Antibiotics for bean blight control. Jour. Agron.43: 617. 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Stoddard, E. M. The X disease of peach and its chemotherapy. Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 506. 1947.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    —. Chemotherapeutic control of fusarium wilt of carnations. Phytopathology.41: 33–34. 1951a. (abs.)Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    —. A chemotherapeutic control of strawberry red stele. Phytopathology.41: 34. 1951b. (abs.)Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    —. Control of strawberry red stele by chemotherapy. Phytopathology.41: 858. 1951c. (abs.)Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    —. Chemotherapeutic control ofRhizoctonia on greenhouse stock. Phytopathology.42: 476. 1952. (abs.)Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    —. Chemotherapeutic control of cucumber scab. Phytopathology.44: 507. 1954. (abs.)Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    —, and A. E. Dimond. The chemotherapy of plant diseases. Bot. Rev.15: 345–376. 1949.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    —, and —. The chemotherapeutic control of fusarium wilt of Carnations. Phytopathology.41: 337–340. 1951.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Stubbs, J. The evaluation of systemic fungicides by means ofAlternaria solani on tomato. Ann. Appl. Biol.39: 439–441. 1952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Sutton, M. D., and W. Bell. The use of Aureomycin as a treatment of swede seed for the control of black rot (Xanthomonas campestris). Pl. Dis. Reptr.38: 547–552. 1954.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Szkolnik, Michael. Antagonistic Activity of a species of aActinomyces againstCeratostomella ulmi in vitro. Phytopathology.38: 85–87. 1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Takahashi, W. N. The inhibition of virus increase by malachite green. Science107: 226. 1948.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    —. The inhibition of virus infection by malachite green. Phytopathology.47: 535. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Tarjan, A. C, and F. L. Howard. Comparison of benzothiazole 1-2-thioglycolic acid derivatives with other chemicals for Dutch elm disease therapy. Phytopathology.43: 486. 1953. (abs.)Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Thomas, C. A. Control of bacterial leaf spot of sesame by streptomycin seed treatment. Phytopathology.46: 29. 1956. (abs.)Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Toole, Richard E. Soil treatments against the mimosa wilt fusarium. Phytopathology.40: 791. 1950. (abs.)Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Van Schaack, Valeria. Antibiotics and potato ring rot. Phytopathology.38: 27. 1948. (abs.)Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Vassel, B. Newer drugs against bacterial infections. N. D. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ. 73. 1946.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Vaughn, John R. Cycloheximide, an antibiotic effective against turf disease. Phytopathology.41: 36. 1951. (abs.)Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    —, J. J. Lockwood, G. S. Randwa, and C. Hamner. The action of actidione on plant tissue and upon certain fungi. Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta. Quart. Bull.31: 456–464. 1949.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    —, and William Klomparens. Comparison of cycloheximide (Actidione) with ten other fungicides for the control of turf diseases. Phytopathology.42: 22. 1952.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Waggoner, P. E. Chemical treatments of potato seed in Connecticut 1955. Pl. Dis. Reptr.40: 411–413. 1956.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    —, and A. E. Dimond. Examination of the possibility of therapy of plant disease with ionizing radiation. Phytopathology.42: 599–602. 1952.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    —, and —. Altering disease resistance with ionizing radiation and growth substances. Phytopathology.46: 30. 1956a. (abs.)Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    —, and —. Altering disease resistance with ionizing radiation. Phytopathology.46: 125–127. 1956b.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    —, and —. Altering disease resistance with ionizing radiation and growth substances. Phytopathology.47: 125–130. 1957.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Wallen, V. R. Control of stem rust of wheat with antibiotics. I. Greenhouse and field tests. Pl. Dis. Reptr.39: 124–127. 1955.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Whiffen, Alma J. The effect of cycloheximide on the sporophyte ofAllomyces arbuscula. Mycologia.43: 635–644. 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Williams, L. E., and J. L. Lockwood. Effect of antibiotics and surface-active agents on bacterial wilt of sweet corn in the greenhouse. Phytopathology.47: 44–48. 1957.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Winter, H. F., and H. C. Young. Temperature as a possible factor in the control of fireblight with streptomycin. Phytopathology.46: 31–32. 1956. (abs.)Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Wolf, D. E., G. Vermillion, A. Wallace, and G. H. Ahlgren. Effect of 2, 4-D on carbohydrate and nutrient element content and on rapidity of kill of soybean plants growing at different nitrogen levels. Bot. Gaz.112: 188–197. 1950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Woods, M. W. Effect of cyanide on synthesis of ringspot and mosaic viruses in tobacco. Phytopathology.33: 77–80. 1943.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Woolliams, G. E. Bean halo blight control with streptomycin sulphate. Phytopathology.47: 538. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Young, H. C, and H. F. Winter. Control of fire blight of apples in Ohio in 1953. Pl. Dis. Reptr.37: 463–464. 1953.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Zaumeyer, W. J. Comparative protection of bean leaves from fungus infection by antibiotic treatments of lower and upper surfaces. Phytopathology.47: 539. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    —, and S. P. Doolittle. Control of late blight on tomato with streptomycin. Phytopathology.46: 32. 1956. (abs.)Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    —, H. R. Thomas, J. W. Mitchell, and H. H. Fisher. Field control of halo blight of beans with streptomycin. Phytopathology.43: 407. 1953. (abs.)Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Zentmyer, G. A. Chemotherapy for control ofPhytophthora root rot of avocado. Phytopathology.44: 511–512. 1954. (abs.)Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    —, and J. L. Erspamer. Vapam as a soil fumigant and as a chemotherapeutant. Phytopathology.47: 38–39. 1957. (abs.)Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    —, and J. G. Horsfall. Internal therapy with organic chemicals in treatment of vascular diseases. Phytopathology.33: 16–17. 1943. (abs.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1959

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Livingston
  • M. T. Hilborn
    • 1
  1. 1.Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station and Maine Agricultural Experiment StationUSA

Personalised recommendations