Economic Botany

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 331–348 | Cite as

Cassava leaves as human food

  • P. A. Lancaster
  • J. E. Brooks


The use of cassava leaves as human food is reviewed and their value as a source of protein and vitamins for supplementing predominantly starchy diets reemphasized. The problem of the toxicity of the leaves is considered, and the effects on both nutritive value and toxicity of the traditional methods of preparing the leaves, such as drying, pounding, and long periods of boiling, are described and discussed. Loss of nutrients, particularly vitamins, occurs during processing but remaining levels can still make an important contribution to the diet. HCN levels are reduced considerably by the processing methods, although the toxic effects of residual levels need further investigation.


Cyanide Cassava Economic Botany Leaf Protein Free Cyanide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Abbes, D. 1956. Solucao fluminense de ambito nacional; farelo integral de mandioca. Bol. Fluminense Agric. 5: 49–52.Google Scholar
  2. Adriaens, E.L. 1951. Recherches sur l’alimentation des populations au Kwango. Bull. Agric. Congo Beige 42: 227–270, 473’552.Google Scholar
  3. Adrian, J., and F. Peyrot. 1970. Role de la feuille de manioc dans les rations alimentaires de type tropical. Medicine Trop. 30: 263–275.Google Scholar
  4. —, and —. 1971. Possible use of the cassava leaf (Manihot utilissima) in human nutrition. Pl. Foods Human Nutr. 2: 61–65.Google Scholar
  5. —, —, J. S. Oliveira, and M. F. de Carvalho. 1969.Etude nutritionelle de la feuille de manioc,Manihot utilissima. Rev. Cienc. Agron. Lourenco-Marques 2: 43–60.Google Scholar
  6. Ahmad, M. I. 1973. Potential fodder and tuber yields of two varieties of tapioca. Malayan Agric. J. 49: 166–174.Google Scholar
  7. Akinrele, I. A. 1963. The manufacture and utilisation of leaf protein. J. W. African Sci. Assoc. 8: 74–79.Google Scholar
  8. Alberto, J. 1958. A mandioca HI Sues derivados, prepares e usos. Gaz. Agric. Angola 3: 128–131.Google Scholar
  9. Anazonwu-Bello, J. N. 1978. Forms and quality of root crops in human nutrition.In Proc. First Natl. Seminar on Root and Tuber Crops, Umudike, Nigeria, 1977, L. S. O. Ene, H. E. Okereke, S. O. Odurukwe, O. O. Okoli, and O. B. Arene, p. 166-177. Natl. Root Crops Res. Inst., Umudike.Google Scholar
  10. Anonymous. 1969. New protein source found in Biafra. Food Manufacture 44: 56.Google Scholar
  11. Anonymous. 1973. Pratos feitos a bas de mandioca. Brazil, unpubl.Google Scholar
  12. Arnal-Peyrot, F., and J. Adrian. 1970. Role nutritionnel de certaines feuilles alimentaires tropicales (manioc, igname, baobab et fromager). Ann. Nutr. Aliment. 24: 137–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Autret, M. 1957. Racines et tubercules. Nutr. Aliment. Trop. 1957: 648–657.Google Scholar
  14. Balasundaram, C. S., R. Chandramani, P. Muthuswamy, and K. K. Krishnamoorthy. 1976. Distribution of hydrocyanic acid in different fractions during the extraction of leaf protein from cassava leaves. Indian J. Nutr. Dietet. 13: 11–13.Google Scholar
  15. Barrett, M.D.P., J. C. Alexander, and C. D. Hill. 1978. Effect of linamarin on thiocyanate production and activity in rats. J. Toxicol. Environmental Health 4: 735–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barrios, E.A., and R. Bressani. 1967. Composicion quimica de la raiz y de la hoja de algunas variedades de yuca,Manihot. Turrialba 17: 314–320.Google Scholar
  17. Boey, C.G., H. H. Yeoh, and M. Y. Chew. 1976. Purification of tapioca leaf rhodanese. Phytochemistry 15: 1343–1344.Google Scholar
  18. Bruijn, G.H. de. 1971. Etude du caractere cyanogenetique du manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Meded. Landbouwhogeschool 71-13: 1–140.Google Scholar
  19. —. 1973. The cyanogenic character of cassava (Manihot esculenta).In Chronic Cassava Toxicity, B. Nestel and R. Maclntyre, ed, p. 43–48. Proc. Interdisciplinary Workshop, London, 1973. Intl. Developm. Res. Centre, Ottawa. IDRC-0l0e.Google Scholar
  20. Busson, F., and B. Bergeret. 1958. Contribution a l’etude chimique des feuilles de manioc,Manihot utilissima Pohl., Euphorbiacees. Medicine Trop. 18: 142–144.Google Scholar
  21. Byers, M. 1961. Extraction of protein from the leaves of some plants growing in Ghana. J. Sci. Food Agric. 12: 20–30.Google Scholar
  22. Caldwell, M. J. 1972. Ascorbic acid content of Malaysian leaf vegetables. Ecol. Food Nutr. 1: 313–317.Google Scholar
  23. —, and I. C. Enoch. 1972. Riboflavin content of Malaysian leaf vegetables. Ecol. Food Nutr. 1: 309–312.Google Scholar
  24. —, and Y. Gim-Sai. 1973. The effect of cooking method and storage on the ascorbic acid content of Malaysian leaf vegetables. Ecol. Food Nutr. 2: 35–38.Google Scholar
  25. Charavanapavan, C. 1944. Studies in manioc and lima-beans with special reference to their utilization as harmless food. Trop. Agric. Ceylon 100: 164–168.Google Scholar
  26. Chew, M. Y. 1972. Cyanide content of tapioca (Manihot utilissima) leaf. Malayan Agric. J. 48: 354–356.Google Scholar
  27. —, and C. G. Boey. 1972. Rhodanese of tapioca leaf. Phytochemistry 11: 167–169.Google Scholar
  28. Clark, A. 1936. Report on effects of certain poisons contained in food plants of West Africa upon health of native races. J. Trop. Med. Sci. 188: 767–781.Google Scholar
  29. Collens, A. E. 1915. Bitter and sweet cassava-hydrocyanic acid contents. Trinidad and Tobago Bull. 14: 54–57.Google Scholar
  30. Cooke, R.D. 1978. An enzymatic assay for the total cyanide content of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). J. Sci. Food Agric. 29: 345–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. —, and D. G. Coursey. 1981. Cassava: a major cyanide-containing food crop.In Cyanide in Biology, B. Vennesland, E. E. Conn, E. J. Knowles, E. Westley, and F. Wissing, ed, p. 93–115. Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  32. —, A. K. Howland, and S. K. Hahn. 1978. Screening cassava for low cyanide using an enzymatic assay. Exp. Agric. 14: 367–372.Google Scholar
  33. —, and E. M. de la Cruz. 1982. The changes in cyanide content of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tissues during plant development. J. Sci. Food Agric. 33: 269–275.Google Scholar
  34. Coursey, D.G. 1973. Cassava as a food: toxicity and technology.In Chronic Cassava Toxicity, B. Nestel and R. Maclntyre, ed, p. 27–36. Proc. Interdisciplinary Workshop, London, 1973. Intl. Developm. Res. Centre, Ottawa. IDRC-0l0e.Google Scholar
  35. Dahniya, M. T. 1981. Effects of leaf harvests and detopping on the yield of leaves and roots of cassava and sweet potato.In Tropical Root Crops: Research Strategies for the 1980s, E. R. Terry, K. A. Oduro, and F. Caveness, ed, p. 137–142. Proc. 1st Triennial Root Crops Symp., Intl. Soc. Trop. Root Crops-Africa Branch, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1980. Intl. Developm. Res. Centre, Ottawa. IDRC-163e.Google Scholar
  36. —, C. O. Oputa, and S. K. Hahn. 1981. Effects of harvesting frequency on leaf and root yields of cassava. Exp. Agric. 17: 91–95.Google Scholar
  37. Davidson, J. C. 1979. Cyanide, cassava and diabetes. Lancet 2: 635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Eggum, B.O. 1970. The protein quality of cassava leaves. British J. Nutr. 24: 761–768.Google Scholar
  39. Ermans, A.M., N. M. Mbulamoko, F. Delange, and R. Ahluwalia, ed. 1980. Role of cassava in the etiology of endemic goitre and cretinism. Intl. Developm. Res. Centre, Ottawa. IDRC- 136e.Google Scholar
  40. Esquivel, T.F., and N. Maravalhas. 1973. Rapid field method for evaluating hydrocyanic acid toxicity of cassava root tubers. J. Agric. Food Chem. 21: 321–322.Google Scholar
  41. Fafunso, M., and O. Bassir. 1976a. Effect of cooking on the vitamin C content of fresh leaves and wilted leaves. J. Agric. Food Chem. 24: 354–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. —, and —. 1976b. The disappearance of cyanide from cassava leaves during leaf protein extraction. W. African J. Biol. Appl. Chem. 19: 30–34.Google Scholar
  43. —, and —. 1977. Variations in the loss of vitamin C in leafy vegetables with various methods of food preparation. Food Chem. 2: 51–55.Google Scholar
  44. —, and O. L. Oke. 1976. Leaf protein from different cassava varieties. Nutr. Rep. Intl. 14: 629–632.Google Scholar
  45. FAO. 1968. Food composition table for use in Africa. Food and Agric. Organisation, Rome and U.S. Dept. Health, Education and Welfare.Google Scholar
  46. FAO. 1972. Food composition table for use in East Asia. Food and Agric. Organisation, Rome and U.S. Dept. Health, Education and Welfare.Google Scholar
  47. Figueiredo, A. de A., and M. M. do Rego. 1973. Teor proteico e mineral em raizes e folhas de mandioca. Bol. Tecn. Centro Tecnol. Agric. Aliment. 5: 23–25.Google Scholar
  48. Floch, H. 1957. Sur la richesse exceptionnelle en vitamine C de feuilles de plantes Guyanaises. J. Agric. Trop. Bot. Appl. 4: 385–391.Google Scholar
  49. Gondwe, A.T.D. 1974. Studies on the hydrocyanic acid content of some local varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and some traditional cassava food products. E. African Agric. Forest. J. 40: 161–167.Google Scholar
  50. Hall, N.T., S. Nagy, and R. E. Berry. 1975. Leaves for food: protein and amino acid contents of leaves from 23 tropical and subtropical plants. Proc. Florida State Hort. Soc. 88: 486–490.Google Scholar
  51. Hanlon, J. 1981. Staple diet turns poisonous. The Guardian, Oct 27.Google Scholar
  52. Hill, D.C. 1973. Chronic cassava toxicity in domestic animals.In Chronic Cassava Toxicity, B. Nestel and R. Maclntyre, ed, p. 105–111. Proc. Interdisciplinary Workshop, London, 1973. Intl. Developm. Res. Centre, Ottawa. IDRC-0l0e.Google Scholar
  53. Joachim, A.W.R., and D. G. Pandittesekere. 1944. Investigations of the hydrocyanic acid content of manioc (Manihot utilissima). Trop. Agric. 100: 150–163.Google Scholar
  54. Johnson, R.M.,and W. D. Raymond. 1968. The chemical composition of some tropical food plants. IV Manioc. Trop. Sci. 7: 109–115.Google Scholar
  55. Jones, W.O. 1959. Manioc in Africa. Stanford Univ. Press, CA.Google Scholar
  56. Kass, M.L., M. Albuquerque, and C. E. M. Ramos. 1979. Concentracao e metodos de eliminacao de acido cianidrico em folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Tropico Umido, Belem-Para, Brasil.Google Scholar
  57. Kumar, C.R.M., and R. C. Mandal. 1975. Effect of topping and defoliation on tapioca (H-226). J. Root Crops 1: 86.Google Scholar
  58. Lancaster, P.A., J. S. Ingram, M. Y. Lim, and D. G. Coursey. 1982. Traditional cassava-based foods: survey of processing techniques. Econ. Bot. 36: 12–45.Google Scholar
  59. Leitāo, M. A. 1971. A mandioca na culinaria africana: algumas receitas. Gaz. Agric. 23: 69–74.Google Scholar
  60. Lutaladio, N.B., and H. C. Ezumah. 1981. Cassava leaf harvesting in Zaire.In Tropical Root Crops: Research Strategies for the 1980s, E. R. Terry, K. A. Oduro and F. Caveness, ed, p. 134–136. Proc. 1st Triennial Root Crops Symp., Intl. Soc. Trop. Root Crops-Africa Branch, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1980. Intl. Developm. Res. Centre, Ottawa. IDRC-163e.Google Scholar
  61. Luyken, R., A. P. de Groot, and P. G. C. van Stratum. 1961. Nutritional value of foods from New Guinea II Net protein utilization, digestibility and biological value of sweet potatoes, sweet potato leaves and cassava leaves from New Guinea. Central Inst. Nutr. Food Res., Utrecht.Google Scholar
  62. Mahendranathan, T. 1971. The effect of feeding tapioca (Manihot utilissima Pohl) leaves to pigs. Malayan Agric. J. 48: 60–68.Google Scholar
  63. Martin, F.W., L. Telek, and R. Ruberte. 1977. Some tropical leaves as feasible sources of dietary protein. J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 61: 32–40.Google Scholar
  64. Massal, E., and J. Barrau. 1955. Pacific subsistence crops. Cassava. S. Pacific Bull. 5: 15–18.Google Scholar
  65. Masseyeff, R., and A. Cambon. 1955. Enquetes sur l’alimentation au Cameroun I Evodoula. Inst. Rech. Terr. Cameroun (IRCAM), Yaounde.Google Scholar
  66. Moh, C.C., and J. J. Allan. 1972. The use of Guignard test for screening cassava cultivars of low hydrocyanic acid content. Trop. Root Tuber Crops Newslett. 6: 29–31.Google Scholar
  67. Montaldo, A., and J. J. Montilla. 1977. Production of cassava foliage.In Proc. 4th Intl. Symp., Intl. Soc. Trop. Root Crops, CIAT, Cali, Colombia, 1976, J. Cock, R. Maclntyre, and M. Graham, ed, p. 142–143. Intl. Developm. Res. Centre, Ottawa. IDRC-080e.Google Scholar
  68. Moran, E.F. 1976. Manioc deserves more recognition. World Crops 28: 184–188.Google Scholar
  69. Mosha, A. C. 1972. Cassava production, utilization and potential fortification in Tanzania. Paper presented at Mandioca Fortification Conf., Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  70. Muñoz, G.A., and P. I. Casas. 1972. Contenido de acido cianhidrico en raices y hojas de clones “amargos” de yuca. Turrialba 22: 221 -223.Google Scholar
  71. Nandakumaran, M., C. R. Ananthasubramaniam, and P. A. Devasia. 1978. Isolation, characterization and chemical composition of tapioca (Manihot utilissima) leaf protein. Kerala J. Vet. Sci. 9: 221–227.Google Scholar
  72. Nartey, F. 1968. Studies on cassava,Manihot utilissima Pohl. I Cyanogenesis: the biosynthesis of linamarin and lotaustralin in etiolated seedlings. Phytochemistry 7: 1307–1312.Google Scholar
  73. —. 1978.Manihot esculenta (cassava). Cyanogenesis, Ultrastructure and Seed Germination. Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  74. Nestel, B.L., and R. Maclntyre. 1973. Chronic cassava toxicity. Proc. Interdisciplinary Workshop, London, 1973. Intl. Developm. Res. Centre, Ottawa. IDRC-0l0e.Google Scholar
  75. Nobre, A., E. Constantino, and W. de O. Nunes. 1973. Selecao de variedades e clones de mandioca visando un melhoramento proteico. Bol. Tecn. Centro Tecnol. Agric. Aliment. 5: 15–21.Google Scholar
  76. Norman, J.C. 1972. Tropical leafy vegetables in Ghana. World Crops 24: 217–219.Google Scholar
  77. Normanha, E.S. 1966. As folhas de mandioca servem como alimento. Supl. Agric. J. Estado de Sao Paulo 3:4.Google Scholar
  78. Obioha, F.C. 1972. Utilization of cassava as a human food.In A Literature Review and Research Recommendations on Cassava, C. H. Hendershott, J. C. Ayres, S. J. Brannen, A. H. Dempsey, P. S. Lehman, F. C. Obioha, D. J. Rogers, R. W. Seerley, and K. H. Tan, ed, p. 130–156. Univ. Georgia, Athens, GA.Google Scholar
  79. Ochse, J. J. 1932. Vegetables of the Dutch East Indies. Dept. Agric, Industry and Commerce, Netherlands, Buitenzorg. (Reprinted 1977. A. Asher and Co. B. V., Amsterdam).Google Scholar
  80. Oke, O.L. 1971. Some aspects of amino acid composition of leaf protein. Indian J. Nutr. Diet. 8: 319–324.Google Scholar
  81. —. 1973. Leaf protein research in Nigeria: a review. Trop. Sci. 15: 139–155.Google Scholar
  82. Oomen, H.A.P.C. 1964. Vegetable greens, a tropical underdevelopment. Chron. Hort. 4: 3–5.Google Scholar
  83. Otoul, E. 1973. Contribution a l’etude nutritionelle des feuilles de maniocManihot esculenta Crantz (Manihot utilissima Pohl). Bull. Inst. Agron. Etat. Gembloux 8: 117–123.Google Scholar
  84. —. 1974. Spectres des acides amines des feuilles de clones de manioc morphologiquement tres differents.Manihot esculenta Crantz (=M. utilissima Pohl). Bull. Inst. Agron. Etat. Gembloux 9: 159–163.Google Scholar
  85. Oyenuga, V.A. 1968. Nigeria’s Foods and Feedingstuffs. Their Chemistry and Nutritive Value. 3rd ed. Univ. Press, Ibadan.Google Scholar
  86. Pages, A. 1955. Sur la composition minerale des feuilles de certaines plantes entrant dans la ration alimentaire habituelle de la population des Hauts-Plateaux de Madagascar. Naturaliste Malgache 7: 215–218.Google Scholar
  87. Pechnik, E., and L. R. Guimaraes. 1961. Sobre o aproveitamento da folha de mandioca (Manihot sp.) na alimentacao humana I Teor de acido cianidrico. Arq. Brasil Nutr. 17: 9–16.Google Scholar
  88. —, and —. 1962. Sobre o aproveitamento da folha de mandioca (Manihot sp.) na alimentacao humana III Mandioca mansa. Arq. Brasil Nutr. 18: 25–36.Google Scholar
  89. —, and —. 1963. Sobre o aproveitamento de folha de mandioca,Manihot sp., na alimentacao IV Efeito da suplementacao de amino-acidos sinteticos sobre o valor alimenticio de folha de mandioca-mansa secado ao ar e em refrigerador. Arq. Brasil Nutr. 19: 11–20.Google Scholar
  90. —, —, and A. Panek. 1962. Sobre o aproveitamento da folha de mandioca,Manihot sp., na alimentacao humana II Contribucao ao estudo do valor alimenticio. Arq. Brasil Nutr. 18: 11–23.Google Scholar
  91. Philbrick, D.J., D. C. Hill, and J. C. Alexander. 1977. Physiological and biochemical changes associated with linamarin administration to rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 42: 539–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Pilac, L.M., I. C. Abdon, and E. P. Mandap. 1971. Oxalic acid content and its relation to the calcium present in some Philippine plant foods. Philipp. J. Nutr. 24: 21–36.Google Scholar
  93. Pratt, N. 1978. Some nutritional considerations of cassava and sweet potato leaves. Paper presented, Regional Root and Tuber Crop Improvement Workshop, Freetown, Sierra Leone.Google Scholar
  94. Purseglove, J. W. 1968. Tropical Crops. Dicotyledons. Longmans, London.Google Scholar
  95. Ramos-Ledon, L.J., and J. Popenoe. 1970. Comparative chemical composition of cultivars ofManihot esculenta Crantz and some related species. Proc. Trop. Reg. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 14: 232–234.Google Scholar
  96. Raymond, W.D., W. Jojo, and Z. Nicodemus. 1941. The nutritive value of some Tanganyika foods II Cassava. E. African Agric. J. Kenya 6: 154–159.Google Scholar
  97. Reed, J.D., R. E. McDowell, P. J. van Soest, and P. J. Horvath. 1982. Condensed tannins: a factor limiting the use of cassava foliage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 33: 213–220.Google Scholar
  98. Rogers, D.J. 1959. Cassava leaf protein. Econ. Bot. 13: 261–263.Google Scholar
  99. —, and M. Milner. 1963. Amino acid profile of manioc leaf protein in relation to nutritive value. Econ. Bot. 17: 211–216.Google Scholar
  100. Sadik, S., O. U. Okerere, and S. K. Hahn. 1974. Screening for acyanogenesis in cassava. Tech. Bull. 4. Intl. Inst. Trop. Agric, Ibadan, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  101. Schwerin, K.H. 1971. The bitter and the sweet. Some implications of techniques for preparing manioc. Paper, Annual Meeting, Amer. Anthropol. Assoc. New York.Google Scholar
  102. Sinha, S.K., and T. V. R. Nair. 1967. Influence of nutrition on the cyanoglucoside content in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).In Subtropical and Tropical Horticulture, p. 539–547. Proc. Intl. Symp. Subtrop. Trop. Hort., New Delhi, 1967. Hort. Soc. India, Bangalore.Google Scholar
  103. Smet, M. de. 1951. De Oarzaken der Kindesterfte in de Streek van Yangambi (1948-1950). Memo. XIX, Fasc. 3. Inst. Roy. Col. Beige, Sec. Sci. Nat. Med., Brussels.Google Scholar
  104. Tallantire, A.C, and P. M. Goode. 1975. A preliminary study of the food plants of the West Nile and Madi districts of Uganda. The utilization of leaves and fruits of local and mainly indigenous plants in supplementing the staple foods. E. African Agric. Forest. J. 40: 233–255.Google Scholar
  105. Terra, G.J.A. 1964. The significance of leaf vegetables, especially of cassava, in tropical nutrition. Trop. Geogr. Med. 16: 97–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Tupynamba, M.L.V.C., and E. C. Vieira. 1979. Isolation of cassava leaf protein and determination of its nutritive value. Nutr. Rep. Intl. 19: 249–259.Google Scholar
  107. Ugochukwu, E.N., and I. U. W. Osisiogu. 1977. Hydrogen sulphide from leaves ofManihot utilissima. Pl. Med. 32: 105–109.Google Scholar
  108. Van Veen, A.G. 1938. Over cassave-bladeren, een hoogwaardige bladgroente. Geneesk. Tijdschr. Ned.-Indie 78: 2548–2552.Google Scholar
  109. Velcich, G. 1963. Bantu know secrets of cassava. Bantu 10: 492–97.Google Scholar
  110. Vitti, P., I. B. Figueiredo, and E. Angelucci. 1971-1972. Folhas de mandioca desidratadas para fins de alimentacao humana. Colet. Inst. Tecnol. Aliment. (Brazil) 4: 117–125.Google Scholar
  111. Watson, J.D. 1976. Ascorbic acid content of plant foods in Ghana and the effects of cooking and storage on vitamin content. Ecol. Food Nutr. 4: 207–213.Google Scholar
  112. Whitby, P. 1972. Cassava. In Zambia Foods and Cooking, p. 25’54. Natl. Food Nutr. Prog., undertaken by U.N. Developm. Prog, and Gov. Zambia.Google Scholar
  113. Williams, H.J. 1979. Estimation of hydrogen cyanide released from cassava by organic solvents. Exp. Agric. 15: 393–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wood, T. 1965. The cyanogenic glucoside content of cassava and cassava products. J. Sci. Food Agric. 16: 300–305.Google Scholar
  115. Wyllie, D., and P. A. Huxley. 1976. Cassava research at the Faculty of Agriculture Forestry and Veterinary Science, Morogoro, Tanzania. Univ. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Google Scholar
  116. Yeoh, H.H., and M. Y. Chew. 1976. Protein content and amino acid composition of cassava leaf. Phytochemistry 15: 1597–1599.Google Scholar
  117. —, and H. Y. Oh. 1979. Cyanide content of cassava. Malayan Agric. J. 52: 24–28.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. A. Lancaster
  • J. E. Brooks
    • 1
  1. 1.Tropical Products InstituteLondon

Personalised recommendations