Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 265–269 | Cite as

Effects of amendments of paper mill sludge and nutrients on soil surface CO2 flux in northern hardwood forests

  • Wang Chuan-kuan
  • Drew C. Feldkirchner
  • Stith T. Gower
  • Jim Ferris
  • Eric L. Kruger


Safe and economical disposal of paper mill sludge is a key consideration for forest products industry. A study was conducted to examine the effects of amendments of sludge and nutrients on soil surface CO2 flux (Rs) in northern hardwood forests and to quantify the relat among R5, soil temperature, and moisture in these stands. The experiment was a randomized complete block design that included sludge-amended, fertilized, and control treatments in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) dominated hardwood forests in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA. Results showed that Rs was positively correlated to soil temperature (R2=0.80, p<0.001), but was poorly correlated to soil moisture. Soil moisture positively affected the Rs only in the sludge-amended treatment. The Rs was significantly greater in the sludge-amended treatment than in the fertilized (p=0.033) and the control (p=0.048) treatments. The maximum Rs in the sludge-amended treatment was 8.8 μmol CO2·m−2·s−1, 91% and 126% greater than those in the fertilized (4.6 μmol CO2·m−2·s−1) and control (3.9 μmol CO2·m−2·s−1) treatments, respectively. The Rs did not differ significantly between the fertilized and control treatments. The difference in Rs between sludge-amended and the other treatments decreased with time following treatment.


Paper mill sludge Fertilization Soil surface CO2 flux Environmental factor 

CLC number

X793 S714 

Document code


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Copyright information

© Editorial Board of Journal of Forestry Research. All rights reserved 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wang Chuan-kuan
    • 1
  • Drew C. Feldkirchner
    • 2
  • Stith T. Gower
    • 2
  • Jim Ferris
    • 3
  • Eric L. Kruger
    • 2
  1. 1.College of ForestryNortheast Forestry UniversityHarbinChina
  2. 2.Department of Forest Ecology and ManagementUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Champion International CorporationNorwayUSA

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