Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 141–146 | Cite as

Effect of post treatment temperature and humidity conditions on fixation performance of CCA-C treated red pine and southern pine

  • Guo AiLong
  • P. A. Cooper


Rates of fixation in chromated copper arsenate (CCA-C) treated red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and southern pine (Pinus spp) sapwood specimens using retention of 1.5, 2.0, 6.4 kg·m−3 are compared at temperature (T) ranging from 70°C to 50°C and 5 different relative humidity (RH) conditions. The samples were investigated using the expressate method to follow chromium fixation. Red pine fixes faster than southern pine under all 11 post treatment schedules. The fixation rates for both species are not significantly different while the blocks were fixed under 6 fixation/drying schedules that differed only in the order of T/RH conditions applied. The rate of fixation of all samples in any fixation stage were reduced when the blocks were fixed under lower humidity conditions in spite of no change in chamber temperature. Some of this influence can be attributed to the effect of humidity on heat transfer into the wood and cooling of the wood surface.


CCA-c Fixation Post treatment Temperature Relative humidity Red pine Southern pine 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, D.L., Ung, T.Y., Cooper, P.A. 1993. Effects of temperature and humidity on CCA-C fixation in pine samples. Wood Protection,2(2): 29–45Google Scholar
  2. American Wood Preservers’ Association. 1997. The AWPA Book of Standards, AWPA, Woodstock, MDGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, D.G. 1989. The accelerated fixation of chromium copper preservative treated wood. Proc. Can. Wood Preserv. Assoc.,10: 75–110Google Scholar
  4. Avramidis, S., and Ruddick, J.N.R. 1989. Effect of temperature and moisture on CCA fixation. Holz-als, Rohund Werksoff,7(8): 328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boone, R.S., Winandy, J.E. 1995. Effects of redying schedules on preservative fixation and strength of CCA-treated lumber. Forest Prod. J.,45(9): 65–73Google Scholar
  6. Chen, J.M., Kaldas, M., Ung, T.Y., Cooper, P.A. 1994. Heat transfer and wood moisture effects in moderate temperature fixation of CCA treated wood. IRG/WP/40022, 13ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Conradie, W.E., and Pizzi, A. 1987. Progressive heat inactivation of CCA biological performance. Proc. Amer. Wood Preserv Assoc.,83: 32–49Google Scholar
  8. Cooper, P. A., Alexander, D.L., and Ung, Y.T. 1993a. What is chemical fixation? In: chromium-containing waterborne wood preservatives, fixation and environmental issues. Forest Prod Soc, Madison, Wis, pp 7–13Google Scholar
  9. Cooper, P.A., and Ung., T.Y. 1993b, A simple quantitative measure of CCA fixation. Forest Prod. J.,43(5): 19–20Google Scholar
  10. Cooper, P.A., Ung., T.Y. and Leonov, E. 1989. Fixation of CCA-C reated pine at moderate temperature. Proc. Can Wood Preserv. Assoc. 10: 111–118Google Scholar
  11. Kaldas, M. and Cooper, P. A. 1996. Effect of wood moisture content on rate of fixation and leachability of CCA-treated red pine. Forest Prod. J.,46(10): 67–71.Google Scholar
  12. Kartal S. Nami. 1999. The leachability, biological resistance and mechanical properties of wood treated with CCA and CCB preservatives. 1999, IRG/WP/99-30207Google Scholar
  13. Lee, A.W.C., Grafton, J.C. and Tainter, F.H. 1993. Effect of rapid redrying shortly after treatment on leachability of CCA-treated southern pine. Forest Prod. J.,43(2): 37–40Google Scholar
  14. Lebow, S.T., Morrell, J.J., and Milota, M.R., 1996. Western wood species treated with chromium copper arsenic: Effect of moisture content. Forest Prod. J.,46(2): 68–70.Google Scholar
  15. Micklewright, J.T. 1993. Wood preservation statistics 1991. A report to the wood preserving industry in the USA. American Wood Preservers’ Assoc. Woodstock. MD. 11ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Smith, P.M. and Sinclair, S.A. 1990. The professional contract/remodeler: Marker research for CCA-treated lumber products. Forest Prod. J.,40(6): 8–14Google Scholar
  17. Ung, T.Y. and Cooper, P.A. 1996, Feasibility of drying CCA-treated red pine poles during fixation. Forest Prod.,46(6): 46–5Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guo AiLong
    • 1
  • P. A. Cooper
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of ForestryUniversity of Toronto, Earth Science CenterTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations