Advances in Therapy

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 402–414 | Cite as

Gene Narcotic Attenuation Program attenuates substance use disorder, a clinical subtype of reward deficiency syndrome

  • Thomas J. H. Chen
  • Kenneth Blum
  • Roger L. Waite
  • Brian Meshkin
  • John Schoolfield
  • B. Williams Downs
  • Eric E. Braverman
  • Vanessa Arcuri
  • Michael Varshavskiy
  • Seth H. Blum
  • Julie Mengucci
  • Carolyn Reuben
  • Tomas Palomo


This study evaluated the effects of a putative activator of brain reward circuitry on outcomes in a 1 -y prospective comprehensive outpatient clinical program. As part of the Gene Narcotic Attenuation Program, Haveos (Synaptamine)™ was administered for the treatment of substance use disorder. Seventy-six patients (45 males and 31 females; mean age, 33 y [standard deviation, 7.0]) who had been given a diagnosis of serious substance use disorder were recruited. After exclusion of 15 patients who dropped out before the end of the study, self-reported craving decreased from program entrance to 12 wk (visual analog scale whereby 0 represents no craving and 5, the strongest craving) for 61 compliant patients (mean decrease, 2.85, 95% confidence interval [Cl], 2.65, 3.05); this improvement was significant (P < .001). Building up to relapse scores (each of 5 individual items and summary value) showed similar improvement after 1 y of treatment; the mean decrease in scores was significant for stress (t=3.3; P=.002), depression (t=4.0;P < .001), anger (t=4.4;P < .001), anxiety (t=4.5,P < .001), drug craving (t=5.4,P < .001), and summary building up to relapse (t=4.1;P < .001). Also, recovery score measures of energy level (t=8.4;P < .001) and ability to refrain from drug-seeking behavior (t=7.4;P < .001) showed significant mean increases from entry to 1 y. During the study, the alcoholic dropout rate was only 7% (4 of 57), which was significantly (Fisher’s exact test,P < .001) lower than the 73% (11 of 15) dropout rate reported for psychostimulant users. Although these results are significant, any interpretation must await the performance of rigorous double-blind studies.


substance use disorder catecholamine-O-methyltransferase inhibition enkephalinase inhibition neurotransmitter precursors Haveos (Synaptamine)™ reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science and Business Media and LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas J. H. Chen
    • 1
  • Kenneth Blum
    • 2
  • Roger L. Waite
    • 3
  • Brian Meshkin
    • 4
  • John Schoolfield
    • 5
  • B. Williams Downs
    • 6
  • Eric E. Braverman
    • 7
  • Vanessa Arcuri
    • 7
  • Michael Varshavskiy
    • 7
  • Seth H. Blum
    • 8
  • Julie Mengucci
    • 8
  • Carolyn Reuben
    • 9
  • Tomas Palomo
    • 10
  1. 1.Chang Jung Christian UniversityTainanTaiwan, Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Physiology and PharmacologyWake Forest University School of MedicineWinston-Salem
  3. 3.GenWellness, Inc.San Diego
  4. 4.Salugen, Inc.San Diego
  5. 5.Department of Academic Informatics ServicesUniversity of Texas Health Science CenterSan Antonio
  6. 6.Allied Nutraceutical ResearchLederach
  7. 7.Path Medical Research FoundationNew York
  8. 8.Synaptamine, Inc.San Antonio
  9. 9.Community Addiction Recovery AssociationSacramento Drug Court ProviderSacramento
  10. 10.Hospital UniversitarioMadridSpain

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