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American Potato Journal

, Volume 71, Issue 7, pp 433–453 | Cite as

Nitrogen and potassium fertilization of potatoes: Sugars and starch

  • D. T. Westermann
  • D. W. James
  • T. A. Tindall
  • R. L. Hurst
Article

Abstract

Considerable evidence exists that both N and K influence potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yields and quality. The impact of nutrients on tuber quality parameters under field conditions should be identified so optimum management practices can be utilized. We evaluated the N and K fertilization by K-sources effects on concentrations of nutrients, reducing sugars, sucrose and starch in the stem and apical tuber ends from two irrigated field experiments with the Russet Burbank cultivar. Nitrogen rates of 0,112, 224 or 336 kg ha−1 were combined with selected K rates of 0, 112, 224 or 448 kg ha−1 as either KCl or K2SO4 arranged as an incomplete factorial. A multiple linear regression model was fit to the data and used to predict the response surface for a complete factorial for each K-source. Nitrogen applications increased or decreased reducing sugars in the apical and stem ends, respectively. Potassium decreased reducing sugars in both tuber ends. Sucrose was higher in the apical end than in the stem end but was not appreciably affected by fertilizer treatment. Nitrogen and potassium applications reduced dry matter and starch concentrations in both tuber ends. Potassium had a smaller effect on the apical end when starch was expressed on a dry weight basis, indicating that increased water content was a factor in the K effect. Both N and K concentrations in the tuber ends were negatively related to starch concentrations, but the relationship was different for the apical and stem ends. Tuber Cl concentration indirectly affected starch concentrations in the stem end when KCL was applied. The K fertilization effect on specific gravity depended upon the K concentration in the harvested tuber and was independent of K fertilizer source. These data illustrate the effects of preplant N and K fertilization rates on final tuber quality parameters. Additional studies are needed to further define the effects of nutrient concentrations at different plant growth stages.

Additional Keywords

Apical end stem end sucrose reducing sugars chloride tuber dry matter sulfur nutrients potassium source 

Compendio

Existe considerable evidencia que tanto el N como el K influencian los rendimientos y calidad de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L.). El impacto de los nutrientes sobre los parámetros de calidad de la papa, bajo condiciones de campo, debe ser identificado de modo que pueden utilizarse prácticas óptimas de manejo. Se evaluó la fertilización con N y K por los efectos de las fuentes de K sobre la concentración de nutrientes, los azúcares reductores, sucrosa y almidón en los extremos apical y terminal de tubérculos de dos experimentos de campo bajo irrigación, con el cultivar Russet Burbank. Se combinaron dosis de 0,112, 224, o 336 kg ha−1 de N, con dosis seleccionadas de Kde 0,112,224 o 448 kg ha−1, sea como KC1 o como K2SO4, dispuestas como un factorial incompleto. Se dispuso la información convenientemente en un modelo de regresión linear múltiple y se le utilizó para pronosticar la superficie de respuesta para un factorial completo para cada fuente de K. Las aplicaciones de N incrementaron o disminuyeron los azúcares reductores en los extremos apical y terminal, respectivamente. El K redujo los azúcares reductores en ambos extremos del tubérculo. La sucrosa fue más alta en el extremo apical que en el terminal, pero no fue apreciablemente afectada por el tratamiento con fertilizantes. Las aplicaciones de N y K redujeron las concentraciones de materia seca y almidón en ambos extremos del tubérculo. El K tuvo un efecto menor sobre el extremo apical cuando se expresó el almidón en base al peso seco, indicando que el incremento de contenido de agua era un factor en el efecto del K. Tanto las concentraciones del N como las del K, en los extremos del tubérculo, estuvieron relacionadas negativamente a las concentraciones de almidón, pero la relación fue diferente para los extremos apical y terminal. Cuando se aplicó KCl las concentraciones de Cl en el tubérculo afectaron indirectamente las concentraciones de almidón en el extremo terminal. El efecto de la fertilización con K sobre la gravedad específica dependió de la concentración de K en el tubérculo cosechado y fue independiente de la fuente de fertilizante potásico. Estos datos ilustran los efectos de las dosis de fertilización con N y K, aplicadas previamente al sembrío, sobre los parámetros de calidad final de los tubérculos. Se requieren estudios adicionales para définir aún más los efectos de las concentraciones de nutrients a diferentes estados de crecimiento de las plantas.

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Copyright information

© Springer 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. T. Westermann
    • 1
  • D. W. James
    • 2
  • T. A. Tindall
    • 3
  • R. L. Hurst
    • 2
  1. 1.USDA-ARSKimberly
  2. 2.Utah State Univ.Logan
  3. 3.Univ. of IdahoTwin Falls

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