A transformation model forLaminaria Japonica (Phaeophyta, Laminariales)
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The method to introduce foreign genes into the kelp,L. japonica
Biolistic bombardment has been proved to be an effective method to bombard foreign DNA through cell walls into intact cells of both sporophytes and gametophytes. The expression ofcat andlacZ was detected in regenerated sporophytes, which suggests that this method could induce random integration of foreign genes.
Promoters to drive gene expression
The CaMV35S promoter was first used by us to induce the expression of GUS gene in brown algae. But results of further studies suggested that CaMV35S could be a tissue-specific promoter. Our use of SV40 promoter resulted in both transient and stable expression oflacZ andcat in sporophytes or gametophytes. No GUS or LacZ background was found in either sporophytes or gametophytes.The regeneration route of transgenic kelp
The regeneration efficiency of explants is still very low. By using female gametophytes as gene hosts and parthenogenesis as regeneration route, CAT activity and LacZ activity were detected in regenerated sporophytes of parthenogenetic kelp. li]4.|The way to select transgenic kelp
Results of sensitivity tests showed that kelp was only sensitive to chloramphenicol and hygromycin among many antibiotics. The regenerated sporophytes by parthenogenesis were more sensitive to hygromycin than to chloramphenicol. Resistant kelp was created by transforming female gametophytes with pSV40-CAT and stimulating parthenogenesis followed by selection in medium with lethal concentration of chloramphenicol.
Safety consideration of transgenic kelp
L. japonica was originally introduced from Japan. In China it is a cultured population. The possibility of its negative impact on natural populations is very low. 2) The vectors and target genes used for transformation should be restricted in order to avoid any negative impacts on human health and environment. 3) Specially devised containers (3.6 L, made of 200 μm membrane) were used to ensure that the kelp cannot escape or be eaten by marine animals. 4) To avoid the release of spores, it is very necessary to harvest the kelp at suitable age before the sporangium forms.
Key Wordsgenetic transformation Laminaria japonica
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