Sports Engineering

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 41–52 | Cite as

Analysis of ankle protection in Association football

  • S. Ankrah
  • N. J. Mills


Football ankle protectors were evaluated against a kick from a studded boot. An anatomically correct test rig was used to evaluate materials and designs. Sensors were used to determine peak pressures on the bony protuberances, and load spreading. Finite element analysis (FEA), varying the material parameters and component dimensions, were used to explore pressure distributions and shell buckling. Current designs, with thin ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) shells, cannot prevent some football kicks causing bruising of the ankle. The protection level could be improved by using thicker foams of higher modulus, and domed shells of higher stiffness.


ankle impact Association football protection 


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Copyright information

© isea 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Engineering, Metallurgy and MaterialsThe University of BirminghamEdgbaston

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