, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 51–58 | Cite as

Lichens: A valuable bioresource for environmental monitoring and sustainable development

General Article


Lichens are a good example of the virtues of simplicity and cooperation. They survive in extremes of climatic conditions, ranging from low tide level on the sea shore to the high reaches of the Himalaya, beyond the tree line, in the arctic Tundra.


Lichens biodiversity symbiosis pollution monitoring ecology 


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Selected Reading

  1. [1]
    D D Awasthi, A key to the macrolichens of India and Nepal,Journ. Hattori Bot. Lab., 65, pp.207–302, 1988.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    M E Hale,The Biology of Lichens, 3rd ed. London, Edward Arnold, 1983.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    H R Negi, Assessing and Conserving India’s Biodiversity of Lichens, InSustainable Management of Forests-India (edited by A Arunachalam and M L Khan), International Book Distributors, Dehra Dun, India, pp. 77–109, 2001.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    D H S Richardson,Pollution Monitoring with Lichens, England, Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd., 1992.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    M R D Seaward,Lichen Ecology, London, Academic Press, 1977.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biodiversity DivisionInstitute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (CSIR)PalampurIndia

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