Wear mechanisms that dominate tool-life in machining

  • P. K. Wright
  • A. Bagchi


The broad concern of the research described in this paper is to identify which of a number of possible tool wear mechanisms have the dominant influence on tool performance for a given toolwork combination. It is proposed that the commercially relevant measure of tool performance is the volume of material worn away from the noseradius region of the tool. A general equation is presented stating that this is affected by adhesion, abrasion, oxidation/adhesion wear, diffusion and plastic deformation of the edge. Micrographs are presented showing these main forms of wear, and the cutting conditions at which they dominate are discussed. The magnitude of the normal stress acting on the cutting edge and the elevated temperature compressive strength of the tool material are shown to limit the maximum rate of metal removal for a particular toolwork combination.


Wear Rate Flank Wear Abrasive Particle Tool Material Rake Face 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    E. M.Trent:Metal Cutting, Butterworths, London/Boston, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Tabor:J. Lubrication Technol., ASME, 1977, vol. 99, pp. 387–95.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    N. H. Cook:J. Engineering for Industry, ASME, 1973, vol. 193, pp. 931–38.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Ramalingam and J. D. Watson:J. Engineering for Industry, ASME, 1978, vol. 100, pp. 201–07.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    I. Ham and N. Narutaki:J. Engineering for Industry, ASME, 1973, vol. 95, pp. 951–59.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. K. Wright, J. G. Horne and D. Tabor:Wear, 1979, vol. 54, pp. 371–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. F. Archard:Wear, 1958, vol. 2, pp. 438–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. W. Wallace and G. Boothroyd:J. Mechanical Engineering Science, 1964, vol. 6, pp. 74–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. N. Zorev:International Research in Production Engineering, ASME, New York, 1973, p. 42.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. A. McClintock and A. S. Argon:Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, MA, 1966.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Ramalingam and P. K. Wright: to be published inJ. Engineering Materials Technology, 1981.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. D. Doyle, J. G. Horne and D. Tabor:Proc. of the Royal Society of London, 1979, vol. A366, pp. 173–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. M. Trent:J. of the Iron and Steel Inst., 1963, vol. 201, pp. 1001–15. E. M. Trent: “Three Wear Processes Which Control Performance of Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools”,SME Technical Paper, No. MR71-913, Dearborn, MI, 1971.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. K. Wright and E. M. Trent,J. of the Iron and Steel Inst., 1973, vol. 211, pp. 364–68.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. K. Wright and A. Bagchi,Proc. of the 8th North American Manufacturing Research Conf., 1980, vol. 8, pp. 277–84.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Gandhi and M. F. Ashby:Acta Metallurgica, 1979, vol. 27, pp. 1565–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Society for Metals 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. K. Wright
    • 1
  • A. Bagchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringCarnegie-Mellon UniversityPittsburgh

Personalised recommendations