Neurochemical Pathology

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 169–176 | Cite as

Somatostatin and neuropeptide Y are unaltered in the amygdala in schizophrenia

  • M. Flint Beal
  • Clive N. Svendsen
  • Edward D. Bird
  • Joseph B. Martin
Original Articles


Although a biochemical abnormality has been postulated in the etiology of schizophrenia, evidence supporting this hypothesis has been conflicting. Because of the presence of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) in limbic system nuclei of the brain, we examined postmortem concentrations of SLI in patients dying with schizophrenia and in normal controls. Concentrations of SLI in Brodmann cortical area 38, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, and both segments of the globus pallidus were not significantly different from controls. In addition, we examined both SLI and neuropeptide-Y-like immunoreactivity (NPYLI) in subnuclei of the amygdala and the substantia innominata. There were no significant alterations in either neuropeptide as compared with controls.

Index Entries

Somatostatin neuropeptide Y amygdala schizophrenia 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adrian T. E., Allen J. M., Bloom S. R., Ghatei M. A., Rossor M. N., Roberts G. W., Crow T. J., Tatemoto K., and Polak J. M. (1983) Neuropeptide Y distribution in human brain.Nature 306, 584–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen Y. S., Adrian T. E., Allen J. M., Tatemoto K., Crow T. J., Bloom S. R., and Polak J. M. (1983) Neuropeptide Y distribution in the rat brain.Science 221, 877–879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnold M. A., Reppert S. M., Rorstad O. P., Sagar S. M., Keutmann H. T., Perlow M. J., and Martin J. B. (1982) Temporal patterns of somatostatin immunoreactivity in the cerebrospinal fluid of the rhesus monkey: Effect of environmental lighting.J. Neurosci. 2, 574–580.Google Scholar
  4. Beal M. F. and Martin J. B. (1984a) The effect of somatostatin on striatal catecholamines.Neurosci. Lett. 44, 271–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beal M. F. and Martin J. B. (1984b) Effects of neuroleptic drugs on brain somatostatin-like immunoreactivity.Neurosci. Lett. 47, 125–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beal M. F., Chattha G. K., and Martin J. B. (1986a) A comparison of regional somatostatin and neuropeptide Y distribution in rat striatum and brain.Brain Res. 377, 240–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beal M. F., Mazurek M. F., Lorenz L. J., Chattha G. K., Ellison D. W., and Martin J. B. (1986b) An examination of neuropeptide Y postmortem stability in an animal model simulating human autopsy conditions.Neurosci. Lett. 64, 69–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beal M. F., Mazurek M. F., and Martin J. B. (1986c) A comparison of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y distribution in monkey brain.Brain Res., in press.Google Scholar
  9. Bird E. D. and Iversen L. L. (1974) Huntington's chorea: Postmortem measurement of glutamic acid decarboxylase, choline acetyltransferase, and dopamine in basal ganglia.Brain. 97, 457–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bird E. D., Spokes E. G. S., and Iversen L. L. (1979) Increased dopamine concentration in limbic areas of brain from patients dying with schizophrenia.Brain. 102, 347–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bohlen P., Stein S., Dairman W., and Udenfriend S. (1973) Fluorometric assay of proteins in the nanogram range.Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 155, 213–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cooper P. E., Fernstrom M. H., Rorstad O. P., Leeman S. E., and Martin J. B. (1981) The regional distribution of somatostatin, substance P, and neurotensin in human brain.Brain Res. 218, 219–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dawbarn D., Hunt S. P., and Emson P. C. (1984) Neuropeptide Y: Regional distribution chromatographic characterization and immunohistochemical demonstration in post-mortem human brain.Brain Res. 296, 168–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Epelbaum J., Tapia-Arancibia L., Kordon C., Ottesen O. P., and Ben-Ari Y. (1979) Regional distribution of somatostatin within the amygdaloid complex of the rat brain.Brain Res. 174, 172–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Everitt B. J., Hokfelt T., Terenius L., Tatemoto K., Mutt V., and Goldstein M. (1984) Differential co-existence of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the rat.Neuroscience 11, 443–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Feighner J. P., Robins E., Guzes S. P., Woodruff R. A., Winokur E., and Munoz R. J. (1972) Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research.Arch. Gen. Psych. 26, 57–63.Google Scholar
  17. Ferrier I. W., Roberts G. W., Crow T. J., Johnstone E. C., Owens D. G. C., Lee Y. C., O'Shaughenssey D., Adrian T. E., Polak J. M., and Bloom S. R. (1983) Reduced cholecystokinin-like and somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in limbic lobe is associated with negative symptoms in schizophrenia.Life Sci. 33, 475–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Farley I. J., Price K. S., McCullough E., Deck J. H. N., Hordyhski W., and Hornykiewicz O. (1978) Norepinephrine in chronic paranoid schizophrenia: Abnormal levels in limbic forebrain.Science 200, 456–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Finely J. C. W., Maderdrut J. L., Rogers, L. J., and Petrusz P. (1981) The immunocytochemical localization of somatostatin-containing neurons in the rat central nervous system.Neuroscience 6, 2173–2192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hokfelt T., Lundberg J. M., Lagercrantz H., Tatemoto K., Mutt V., Lindberg J., Terenius L., Everitt B. J., Fuxe K., Agnati L., and Goldstein M. (1983) Occurrence of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like immunoreactivity in catecholamine neurons in the human medulla oblongata.Neurosci. Lett. 36, 217–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kety S. S., Rosenthal D., Wender P. H., Schulsinger F., and Jacobsen B. (1975) Mental illness in the biological and adoptive families of adopted individuals who have become schizophrenic: A preliminary report based on psychiatric interviews, inGenetic Research in Psychiatry (Fieve R., Rosenthal R., and Brill H., eds.) pp. 147–165. Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  22. Kluver H. and Bucy P. C. (1939) Preliminary analysis of functions of the temporal lobes in monkeys.Arch. Neurol. Psych. 42, 979–1000.Google Scholar
  23. Lilly R., Cummings J. L., Benson D. F., and Frankel M. (1983) The human Kluver-Bucy syndrome.Neurology 33, 1141–1145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Murray E. A. and Mishkin M. (1985) Amygdalectomy impairs cross modal association in monkeys.Science 228, 604–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nemeroff C. B., Youngblood W. W., Manberg P. J., Prange A. J., and Kizer J. S. (1983) Regional brain concentrations of neuropeptides in Huntington's chorea and schizophrenia.Science 221, 972–975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Reynolds G. P. (1983) Increased concentrations and lateral asymmetry of amygdala dopamine in schizophrenia.Nature 305, 527–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Roberts G. W., Ferrier I. N., Lee Y., Crow T. J., Johnstone E. C., Owens D. G. C., Bacarese-Hamilton A. J., McGregor G., O'Shaughnessey D., Polak J. M., and Bloom S. R. (1983) Peptides, the limbic lobe and schizophrenia.Brain Res. 288, 199–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Roberts G. W., Woodhams P. L., Polak J. M., and Crow T. J. (1982) Distribution of neuropeptides in the limbic system of the rat: The amygdaloid complex.Neuroscience 7, 99–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Svendsen C. N. and Bird E. D. (1985) Acetylcholinesterase staining of the human amygdala.Neurosci. Lett. 59, 313–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Svendsen C. N., Langlais P. J., Benes F. M., and Bird E. D. (1986) Monoamine levels in the left and right amygdaloid complex of schizophrenic postmortem brain tissue, inBiological Psychiatry (Shagass C. et al., eds.) pp. 1115–1117, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  31. Walsh F. X., Stevens T. J., Langlais P. J., and Bird E. D. (1982) Dopamine and homovanillic acid concentrations in striatal and limbic regions of human brain.Ann. Neurol. 12, 52–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Humana Press Inc 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Flint Beal
    • 1
  • Clive N. Svendsen
    • 2
  • Edward D. Bird
    • 2
  • Joseph B. Martin
    • 1
  1. 1.From the Department of NeurologyMassachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBoston
  2. 2.The Brain Tissue Resource CenterMcLean Hospital Belmont

Personalised recommendations