Journal of Materials for Energy Systems

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 27–31 | Cite as

Alkali attack on a mullite refractory in the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center slagging gasifier

  • C. R. Kennedy


A mullite refractory lining in the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center slagging gasifier cracked and spoiled after intermittent exposure to the coal-gasification atmosphere for a total of only about 125 h at a hot- face temperature of 1000 ± 200 °C. The mullite refractory was found to have reacted with a sodium compound (probably NaOH) to form carnegieite and betaalumina. Failure occurred as the result of the volume expansion associated with this reaction. A review of the literature indicates that a dense magnesiumaluminate spinel refractory should be significantly superior to mullite in resistance to alkali attack.


Blast Furnace Lignite Volume Expansion Magnesite Nepheline 
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Copyright information

© American Society for Metals 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. R. Kennedy
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials Science DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryArgonne

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