Advertisement

Journal of Heat Treating

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 47–60 | Cite as

Hardenabilities of vanadium-modified 4330 low alloy constructional steels

  • P. L. Mangonon
Article

Abstract

The substitutability of vanadium for molybdenum in a 4330 low alloy steel grade was investigated. In particular, the influence on hardenabiltiy of three factors, 1) composition (partial and total substitution), 2) austenitizing temperature and 3) small additions of titanium were determined. Critical hardenable diameters, DI, based on 50 pct martensite hardness and austenitic grain sizes reveal very significant information. At normal commercial heat treating temperatures, the results show that a one-for-two vanadium-for-molybdenum substitution by weight attains equivalent hardenabilities. The data suggest that as much as 0.24 pct V is dissolved in austenite at 871 °C (1600 °F) and that the austenitic grains in vanadium steels coarsen easier than those in molybdenum steels. These refute older concepts about insolubility of vanadium carbides and finer austenitic grain sizes for vanadium steels.

Keywords

Austenite Vanadium Standard Grade Versus Alloy Vanadium Carbide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    G. H. Robinson: Pre-print Paper 1, Alloys for the 80s Symposium, June 17–18, 1980, Ann Arbor, MI. (Sponsored by Climax Molybdenum of Michigan).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    AISI Form AlS 7-A for December, 1978.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Staff Technical Feature:Iron Age, January 29, 1979, p. 51.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. McKnight:Trans. American Society for Steel Treating, 1921, vol. 1 no. 6, p. 288.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. J. Regan:Iron Age, September 17, 1979, p. 47.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. W. Wiedenhoff, P. A. Peters, W. B. Kretzschmann and W. M. Hof: Paper D, Pre-prints of Papers presented at the VANITEC Seminar, November 7, 1979, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. Ouchi, K. Tsukada, and J. Tanaka: Paper E,ibid. Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. B. Rothwell and R. J. Cooke: Pre-print Paper 14, Alloys for the 80s Symposium, June 17–18, 1980, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. B. Bertolo, R. T. Ault and R. H. Cobbett: SAE Paper 810424 to be presented at the SAE Congress, February 23–27, 1981.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. A. Grange:Met. Trnas. A, 1973, vol. 4A, pp. 2231–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. T. Eldis and W. C. Hagel:Hardenability Concepts With Applications to Steel, D. V. Doane and J. S. Kirkaldy, eds., p. 397, TMS-AIME, Warrendale, PA, 1978.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. A. Grossman:Trans. AIME, 1942, vol. 150, p. 227.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    W. Crafts and J. L. Lamont:Trans. AIME, 1944, vol. 158, p. 157.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. E. Repas: Proceedings of VANITEC Seminar held in Berlin, Germany, October, 1978, p. 13, Published by VANITEC, London, England.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. H. Woodhead: Paper A, Pre-prints of Papers presented at the VANITEC Seminar, Chicago, IL, November 7, 1979.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    N. A. Savostyanova and L. A. Shvartsman:Fit. Metall. Metalloved., 1960, vol. 9, p. 515.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. V. Doane:Hardenability Concepts With Applications to Steel, D. V. Doane and J. S. Kirkaldy, eds., p. 351, TMS-AIME, Warrendale, PA, 1978.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. R. Diews: Private communication, International Harvester Science and Technology Center.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    1980 SAE Handbook, p. 2.12.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. J. McMahon, Jr.:Met. Trans. A, 1980, vol. 11A, p. 531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. L. Mangonon: Unpublished data, Foote Mineral Company.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    I. R. Kramer, S. Siegel and J. G. Brooks:Trans. AIME, 1946, vol. 167, p. 670.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. J. Lapointe and T. N. Baker:Metals Technol., 1979, vol. 6, p. 374.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Society for Metals 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. L. Mangonon
    • 1
  1. 1.Steel Research and DevelopmentFoote Mineral CompanyExton

Personalised recommendations