Journal of Heat Treating

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 47–60 | Cite as

Hardenabilities of vanadium-modified 4330 low alloy constructional steels

  • P. L. Mangonon


The substitutability of vanadium for molybdenum in a 4330 low alloy steel grade was investigated. In particular, the influence on hardenabiltiy of three factors, 1) composition (partial and total substitution), 2) austenitizing temperature and 3) small additions of titanium were determined. Critical hardenable diameters, DI, based on 50 pct martensite hardness and austenitic grain sizes reveal very significant information. At normal commercial heat treating temperatures, the results show that a one-for-two vanadium-for-molybdenum substitution by weight attains equivalent hardenabilities. The data suggest that as much as 0.24 pct V is dissolved in austenite at 871 °C (1600 °F) and that the austenitic grains in vanadium steels coarsen easier than those in molybdenum steels. These refute older concepts about insolubility of vanadium carbides and finer austenitic grain sizes for vanadium steels.


Austenite Vanadium Standard Grade Versus Alloy Vanadium Carbide 
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Copyright information

© American Society for Metals 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. L. Mangonon
    • 1
  1. 1.Steel Research and DevelopmentFoote Mineral CompanyExton

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