The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 259–271 | Cite as

Endemic goitre in India: Prevalence, etiology, attendant disabilities and control measures

  • C. S. Pandav
  • N. Kochupillai
Symposium: Pediatric Endocrinology Editorial


Endemic goitre due to iodine deficiency is a health problem that afflicts, with varying degrees, of severity, an estimated 40 million people throughout the subcontinent. In areas where goitre prevalence is high (more than 50%) major attendant disabilities of endemic goitre such as endemic cretinism, deaf—mutism and feeble mindedness are present in about 4% of the population.

Iodisation of salt can be an effective prophylactic measure against goitre. Though, a National Goitre Control Programme was launched 2 decades back, only less than 15% of the known goitrous areas have been covered by the programme (1979–80). The major constraints in this regard seem to be inadequate availability of iodised salt.

Urgent implementation of iodine prophylaxis is imperative. Also, the benefits of modern technological advancement for early detection and prompt treatment of thyroid related developmental abnormalities of the brain among the new borns in these areas, should be utilised as an interim measure to prevent further such damages.

Key words

Endemic goitre, public health problem etiology environmental iodine deficiency other contributory factors attendant disabilities National Goitre Control Programme 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ramalingaswami V, Subramanyam TAV, Deo MG: The etiology of Himalayan endemic goitre. Lancet i: 791, 1961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kochupillai N, Philip Augustine, Ahuja MMS: Quantitative aspects of iodine metabolisum in simple goitre seen in Delhi and neighbourhood areas. J All India Institute of Medical Sciences 3: 159, 1977Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pandav CS, Kochupillai N, Karmarkar MG, Ramachandran K, Gopinath PG, Nath LM: Endemic goitre in Delhi. Ind J Med Res 72:81,1980Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sooch SS, Deo MG, Karmarkar MG, Kochupillai N, Ramachandran K, Ramalingaswami V: Prevention of endemic goitre with iodized salt. Bull WHO 49: 307, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Country Programme People, National Goitre Control Programme, Government of India, September 1980.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Langer P: Endemic Goitre, Monograph Series No. 44 World Health Organization. Geneva 1960 p 10Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ramalingaswami V: Endemic goitre in South East Asia—New clothes on an old body. Ann Int Med 78: 277,1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kelly FC, Snedden WW: Endemic Goitre. Monograph Series No. 44. World Heath Organization. Geneva. 1960. p. 27Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kelly FC, Snedden WW: Endemic Goitre. Monograph Series No. 44. World Health Organization. 1960. p. 156Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sengupta SK, Kapoor PN, Roychoudhary SK: Prevalence of Endemic Goitre on the Sub-Himalayan Range of India. Ind J Med Res 56: 1423, 1968Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pocket Book of Health Statistics of India. Central Bureau of Health Intelligence, Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Goverment of India. 1978 and 1980Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Edibam HH, Dave BT, Niyogi AK: Endemic goitre in Narmada valley in Broach district, Gujrat. Ind J Med Sc 26: 218, 1972Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dandare MP, Sathe PV: A goitre survey in school children in Sillod Taluka, Aurangabad district, Maharashtra. Ind J Pre Soc Med 4: 47,1973Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krishnamachari KA: Endemic goitre. a public health problem in Maharashtra, Ind. Trop Geogr Med 26: 147, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sathe PV, Dandare MP: Goitre survey in Sillod Taluka, Aurangabad District, Maharashtra State. Ind J Pub Health 19: 84, 1975Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Karmarkar MG: Personal CommunicationGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Basu PK, Narayan R, Yusuf S, James KK: Preliminary report of survey of prevalence of goitre in Tea estates of Munnar. Paper presented at VIth All India Conferences of Preventive & Social Medicine. Bangalore 1976Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dwivedi MP: Survey—sub-Vindhya belt of Endemic goitre Swastha Hind. August: 186,1978Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dudani TG, Natu MN: Epidemiolcgy of goitre in Ghodegaon. Ind J Med Res 12; 980,1978Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Trivedi DH. Shah DN, Vyas DB, Patel YI: Endemic goitre in the villages along the bank of river Karjan and Narmada of Broach District, Gujrat. Ind J Com Med IV: 23,1979Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shah DH: Goitre survey in the school children of Bombay. Current Thyroid Problems in Southeast Asia and Oceania; Asia and Oceania Thyroid Association, 1978Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Karmakar MG, Deo MG, Kochupillai N, Ramalingaswami V: Pathophyiology of Himalayan endemic goitre. Am J Clin Nutr 27: 96, 1974Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sooch SS, Ramalingaswami V: Preliminary report of an experiment in the Kangra valley for the prevention of Himalayanendemic goitre with iodinated salt. Bull WHO 32: 229, 1965Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stanbury JB, Ermans AM, Hetzel BS, Pretell EH, Querido A: Endemic goitre and cretinism—public health significance and prevention. WHO Chronicle 28: 220,1973Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    McCarrison R: The Etiology of Endemic Goitre. Lancet 219: 1913Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kelly FC, Snedden WW: Endemic Goitre. Monograph Series No. 44. World Health Organization. Geneva 1960. p 153Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ingenbleek Y, Luypaert B, Nayer Ph De: Nutritional status and endemic goitre. Lancet i: 388, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kochupillai N, Karmarkar MG, Weightman D, Hall R, Deo MG, McKendrick M, Everd DC, Ramalingaswami V: Pituitary thyroid axis in Himalayan endemic goitre. Lancet i: 1021,1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Querido A, Delange F, Dunn T, Fienitez R, lbbertson HK, Koutras DA, Perinetti H: Definitions of endemic goitre and cretinisum, classification of goitre size and severity of endemics and survey techniques. PAHO Sci Pub no. 292, 1974, p 267Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thilly CH, Hetzel BS: An assessment of prophylactic programs In, Stanbury JB Hetzel BS (ed): A Willey Medical Publication. New York. New York. 1980; p 473Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lauder JM: Effects of thyroid state on development of rat cerebellar cortex. In, Grave GD (ed): Thyroid Hormones and Brain Development, Raven Press. New York. 1977. p 235Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Raiti S, Newns GH: Cretinism: Early diagnosis and its relation to mental prognosis. Arch Dis Child 46: 692, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Klein AH, Meltzer S. Kenny FM: Improved prognosis in congenital hypothyroidism treated before age three months. J Paediatr 89: 912,1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Leading Articles: Screening for congenital hypothyroidism. Br Med J 281: 1, 1980Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dussault JH, Morissette J, Letarte J, Guyda H, Laberge C: Modification of a screening programme for neonatal hypothyroidism. J Paediatr 92:274, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mitchell ML, Larsen PR, Levy HL, Bennett AJE, Madoff M: Screening for congenital hypothyroidism. Results in the newborn population of New England. JAMA 239: 2348, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fisher DA, Dussault JH, Foley TP, Klein AH, LaFranchi S, Larsen PR, Mitchell ML, Murphey WH Walfish PG: Screening for congenital hypothyroidism: results of screening of one million North American infants. J. Paediatr 94:700, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lowenstein FW: Iodized salt in the prevention of endemic goitre. A world wide survey of present programs. Am J Pub Hlth 57:1815, 1967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gopalan C, Rama Sastri BV, Balasubramanian SB: Nutritive value of Indian Foods, National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Recearch Hyderabad, India. Card Box Company Hyderabad. 1978, p. 23.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    WHO: Report of a Seminar on Goitre Control. WHO, SEATO, New Delhi. 1967.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. S. Pandav
    • 1
  • N. Kochupillai
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Community MedicineAll-India Institute of Medical SciencesNew Delhi-29
  2. 2.Department of MedicineAll-India Institute of Medical SciencesNew Delhi

Personalised recommendations