Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 23–26 | Cite as

Molecular diagnosis of mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs) in plants

A review
  • Robert E. Davis
  • James P. Prince


Worldwide, yellows diseases impact plants important in human nutrition, the natural environment, and the culture and commerce of humans. Since the presumed pathogens, mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs), have not been isolated in pure culture in vitro, their study must proceed by other experimental approaches. In a study of disease affecting grapevines in Europe and North America, polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and restriction analyses of PCR-amplified DNA were used to detect and differentiate strains of MLOs associated with grapevine yellows. MLOs were detected both in naturally diseased grapevines and in experimentally inoculated host plants. The data indicated an unexpected genomic diversity among grapevine-infecting MLOs, and supported their classification with MLOs in the aster yellows, X-disease, and elm yellows groups. The presence of diverse MLOs in grapevines provokes consideration that these MLOs may be present in overlapping geographic ranges and that multiple MLO infections may occur in individual plants, increasing the complexity of grapevine yellows epidemiology and control and the significance of sensitive MLO detection in planting stock and phytosanitary-regulated germplasm.

Index Entries

Detection mollicutes grapevine yellows flave-scence dorée mycoplasmas epidemiology etiology 16S rRNA gene RFLP analysis 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Davis
    • 1
  • James P. Prince
    • 1
  1. 1.Molecular Plant Pathology LaboratoryPlant Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Seruice-USDABeltsuille

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