Folia Microbiologica

, 45:391 | Cite as

Progesterone transformation as a biochemical aid in classification of the genusEmericella

  • A. A. Zohri


A total of 65 isolates representing 13Emericella taxa (5 isolates of each of 12 species and 1 variety) had the ability to transform progesterone into 11α-hydroxyprogesterone. A systematic variation could be observed between the different testedEmericella taxa with respect to the transformation products. The isolates were divided according to the transformation types into six groups: (1) progesterone was hydroxylated into 6β-hydroxyprogesterone, 11α-hydroxyprogesterone and 6β, 11α-dihydroxyprogesterone— found inEmericella acristata andE. dentata; (2) E. aurantio-brunna andE. parvathecia hydroxylated progesterone into 11α-hydroxyprogesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and 11α,17α-dihydroxyprogesterone; (3)E. nidulans andE. quadrilineata formed the same three products as members of group (2) and form epicortisol; (4)E. nidulans var.lata, E. bicolor andE. variecolor transformed progesterone into a mixture of mono- di-and trihydroxy products; (5)E. striata andE. sublata exhibited an oxidative splitting of the progesterone side chain in position C-17 and hydroxylated progesterone into mono-and dihydroxy products; (6)E. rugulosa andE. unguis had the ability to degrade progesterone side-chain and to hydroxylate it into mono-, di- and trihydroxy products. This biochemical differentiation may supplement the morphological and other biochemical criteria used in the classification of theEmericella taxa.


Progesterone Cladosporium Cladosporioides Biochemical Differentiation Microbiological Transformation Steroid Transformation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Atta F.M., Zohri A.A.: Transformation reactions of progesterone by different species ofStreptomyces.J. Basic Microbiol. 35, 3–7 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benjamin C.R.: Ascocarps ofAspergillus andPenicillium.Mycologia 47, 669–687 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berkeley M.J.:Introduction to Cryptogamic Botany. Bailliere London 1857.Google Scholar
  4. Čapek A., Hanč O.: Microbiological transformation of steroids—XIV. Microbial 11β-hydroxylation of steroids.Folia Microbiol. 6, 237–242 (1961).Google Scholar
  5. Čapek A., Hanč O., Tadra M., Túma J.: Microbial transformation of steroids—XXIV. Separation of androsta-17-hydroxy epimers.Folia Microbiol. 9, 380–382 (1964).Google Scholar
  6. Čapek A., Fassatiová O., Hanč O.: Progesterone transformations as a diagnostic feature in the generaAlternaria, Stemphylium andCladosporium.Folia Microbiol. 19, 378–380 (1974).Google Scholar
  7. Čapek A., Fassatiová O., Hanč O.: Progesterone transformation as a diagnostic feature of the generaHumicola andGilmaniella.Folia Microbiol. 20, 166–167 (1975).Google Scholar
  8. Christensen M., Raper K.B.: Synoptic key toAspergillus nidulans group species and relatedEmericella species.Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 71, 177–191 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dulaney E.L., McAleer W.J., Koslowski M., Stapley E.O., Jaglom J.: Hydroxylation of progesterone and 11-deoxy-17-hydroxycorticosterone byAspergillus andPenicillium.Appl. Microbiol. 3, 336–340 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. El-Refai A.H., Sallam L.A.R. El-Kady I.A.: Microbiological transformations of progesterone.J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. (Tokyo) 15, 301–307 (1969).Google Scholar
  11. Eman Mostafa M.: Progesterone transformation as a diagnostic feature in the classification of theAspergillus niger group.Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 20, 243–246 (1995).Google Scholar
  12. Frisvad J.C.: Physiological criteria and mycotoxin production as aids in identification of common asymmetric penicillia.Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41, 568–579 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghanem K.M.: Physiological studies on steroid-transforming microorganisms.PhD Thesis. Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria (Egypt) 1982.Google Scholar
  14. Horie Y.: Ascospore ornamentation and its application to the taxonomic re-evaluation inEmericella.Trans. Mycol. Soc. Japan 21, 483–493 (1980).Google Scholar
  15. Ismail M.A., Zohri A.A.: Confirmation of the relationships ofAspergillus egyptiacus andEmericella nidulans using progesterone transformation.Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 18, 130–131 (1994).Google Scholar
  16. Ismail M.A., Abdel-Sater M.A., Zohri A.A.: A synoptic key to species of theAspergillus nidulellus-Emericella assemblage common to Egypt.Mycotaxon 53, 391–405 (1995).Google Scholar
  17. Khallil A.M., Eman Mostafa M.: Microbiological transformation of progesterone by some zoosporic fungi.J. Basic Microbiol. 36, 255–259 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mahato S.B., Mukherjee A.: Steroid transformations by microorganisms—I.Phytochemistry 23, 2131–2154 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mahato S.B., Banerjee S., Podder S.: Steroid transformations by microorganisms—III.Phytochemistry 28, 7–40 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Malloch D., Cain R.F.: New species and combinations of cleistothecialAscomycetes.Can. J. Bot. 50, 61–72 (1972).Google Scholar
  21. Mamoli L., Vercellone A.: Biochemische Umwandlung von Δ4-Androstendione in Δ4-Testosterone. Ein Beitrag zur Genese des Keimdrusenhormons.Vorlauf Mitteil. Ber. 70, 470 (1937).Google Scholar
  22. Mcaleer W.J., Dulaney E.L.: Transformation of progesterone to 17α-hydroxyprogesterone byTrichoderma viride.Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 62, 111–112 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Meister P.D., Peterson D.H., Murray H.C., Eppstein S.N., Reineke L.M., Weintraub A., Leigh H.M.: Microbiological transformation of steroids—II. The preparation of 11α-hydroxy-17α-progesterone.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 55 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Monte E., Bridge P.D., Sutton B.C.: An integrated approach toPhoma systematics.Mycopathologia 115, 89–103 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Peterson D.H.: Microbial transformation of steroids and their application to the preparation of hormones, pp. 537–606 in C. Rainbow, A.H. Rose (Eds):Biochemistry of Industrial Microorganisms. Academic Press, New York-London 1963.Google Scholar
  26. Peterson D.H., Murray H.C.: Microbial oxygenation of steroids at carbon—II.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 74, 1871–1872 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Peterson D.H., Murray H.C., Eppstein S.N., Reineke L.M., Weintraub A., Meister P.D., Leigh H.M.: Microbiological transformation of steroids—I. Introduction of oxygen at carbon-11 of progesterone.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 74, 5933–5936 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Peterson D.H., Eppstein, S.H., Meister P.D., Magerlein B.J., Murray H.C., Marian-Leigh H., Weintraub A., Reineke L.M.: Microbiological oxygenation of steroids. The 11-epimer of compound S, a new route to cortisone.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 412–415 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Raper K.B., Fennell D.I.:The Genus Aspergillus. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 1965.Google Scholar
  30. Sallam L.A.R., El-Refal A.H., El-Kady I.A.: Thin layer chromatography of some C-18, C-19 and C-21 steroids.J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 15, 309–315 (1969).Google Scholar
  31. Sallam L.A., El-Refal A.H., El-Kady I.A.: Transformation of progesterone byAspergillus niger 1000 andRhizopus nigricans RFF 129.Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 43, 1239–1242 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shull G.M., Kita D.A., Davidson J.W. Microbiological oxygenation of steroids.US Pat. 2 658 023 (1953).Google Scholar
  33. Zaffaroni A., Campillo C.C., Cordova F., Rosenkranz G.: Steroids-LXVI. Microbiological hydroxylation of steroids in position 21.Experientia 11, 219 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zohri A.A., Abdel-Galil M.S.M.: Progesterone transformation by three species ofHumicola.Folia Microbiol. 44, 277–282 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zohri A.A., Ismail M.A.: Based on biochemical and physiological behavior, where isAspergillus egyptiacus better placed?Folia Microbiol. 39, 415–419 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Folia Microbiologica 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Zohri
    • 1
  1. 1.Date Processing PlantAl-Ahsa Food Industries Co.Al-AhsaSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations