Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 20, Issue 12, pp 319–329 | Cite as

Thermodynamics of copper matte converting: Part III. Steady-state volatilization of Au, Ag, Pb, Zn, Ni, Se, Te, Bi, Sb, and As from slag, matte, and metallic copper

  • M. Nagamori
  • P. C. Chaubal


A comprehensive compilation of various thermodynamic data required for a complete analysis of copper matte converting reactions is presented. The data comprise estimated free energies of formation for such gases as SeO, SeS, TeO, TeS, BiO, BiS, SbO, SbS, AsO, and AsS, as well as activity coefficients in dilute copper alloys and vapor pressures of various elements and compounds. The volatilization of minor elements in steady-state reactors comprising gas and several condensed phases is mathematically formulated, and a parameter which governs the volatilization in such reactors is defined and named volatilization constant. The vapor pressures of various volatile species are calculated thermodynamically for the Noranda Process reactor by assuming equilibrium conditions. The volatilization constants of various minor elements are expressed explicitly as functions of oxygen and sulfur activities.


Partial Pressure Metallurgical Transaction Minor Element Ag2S Slag Phase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. Nagamori and P. J. Mackey:Metall. Trans. B, 1978, vol. 9B, pp. 255–65.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Nagamori and P. J. Mackey:Metall. Trans. B, 1978, vol 9B, pp. 567–79.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. S. Pitzer and L. Brewer:Thermodynamics, by G. N. Lewis and M. Randall (revised edition), McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1961.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. F. Elliott, M. Gleiser, and V. Ramakrishna: Thermochemistry for Steelmaking, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1963, vol. 2.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.G. Behrens, R. S. Lemons, and G.M. Rosenblatt:J. Chem. Thermodynamics, 1974, vol. 6, pp. 457–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. F. Barrow and C. Cousins:Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, L. Eyring, ed., Academic Press, New York, NY, 1971, vol. 4, pp. 161–70.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. D. Wagman, W. H. Evans, V. B. Parker, I. Harlow, S. M. Bailey, and R. H. Schumm: National Bureau of Standards, Technical Note 270-3, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1968.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D.W. Muenow, J.W. Hastie, R. Hauge, R. Bautista, and J. L. Margrave:Trans. Faraday Soc., 1969, vol. 65, pp. 3210–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. D. Rossini, D. D. Wagman, W. H. Evans, S. Levine, and J. Jaffe: Selected Values of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties, Circ. 500, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC, 1961.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. M. Faure, M. J. Mitchell, and R. W. Bartlett:High Temperature Science, 1973, vol. 5, pp. 128–37.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Hultgren, R. L. Orr, P.D. Anderson, and K.K. Kelley:Selected Values of Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 1963.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    O. Kubaschewski, E. LI. Evans, and C.B. Alcock:Metallurgical Thermochemistry, Pergamon Press, New York, NY, 1967.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    F. M. Faure, M. J. Mitchell, and R. W. Bartlett:High Temperature Science, 1972, vol. 4, pp. 181–91.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    O.M. Uy and J. Drowart:Trans. Faraday Soc., 1969, vol. 65, pp. 3221–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. J. Mitchell: Thesis, Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, 1976. Xerox Univ. Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI, Order No. 76-13, 047.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. K. Kelley and E. G. King: U. S. Bureau of Mines, Bull. 592, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1961.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K.K. Kelley: U.S. Bureau of Mines, Bull. 584, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1960.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R.F. Barrow and E. W. Deutsch:Proc. Phys. Soc., 1963, vol. 82, pp. 548–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    G.G. Chandler, H.H. Hurst, and R.F. Barrow:Proc. Phys. Soc., 1965, vol. 86, pp. 105–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yu. M. Korenev, N. M. Karasev, I. A. Timoshin, T. A. Volkova, L. N. Sidorov, and A. V. Novoselova:Zh. Fiz. Kim., 1972, vol. 46, pp. 1714–17.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    N. M. Karasev, Yu. M. Korenev, I. A. Timoshin, L. N. Sidorov, and A. V. Novoselova:Zh. Fiz. Kim., 1972, vol. 46, pp. 1718–21.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Hino, T. Azakami, and M. Kameda:Nippon Kogyo Kaishi, 1973, vol. 89, pp. 749–54.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    G.K. Sigworth and J. F. Elliott:Can. Met. Quart., 1974, vol. 13, pp. 455–61.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    T. Azakami and A. Yazawa:Nippon Kogyo Kaishi, 1969, vol. 85, pp. 97–102.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. P. Hager, S. M. Howard, and J. H. Jones:Metall. Trans., 1970, vol. 1, pp. 415–21.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Nagamori, P. J. Mackey, and P. Tarassoff:Metall. Trans. B, 1975, vol. 6B, pp. 295–301.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A.D. Kulkarni:Metall. Trans., 1973, vol. 4, pp. 1713–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Bode, J. Gerlach, and F. Pawlek:Erzmetall, 1971, vol. 24, pp. 480–85.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. Azakami and A. Yazawa:Nippon Kogyo Kaishi, 1967, vol. 83, pp. 666–72.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    C.B. Alcock and F.D. Richardson:Acta Met., 1958, vol. 6, pp. 385–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    W. A. Krivsky and R. Schuhmann:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1957, vol. 209, pp. 981–88.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    K. Azuma, S. Goto, and N. Takebe:Nippon Kogyo Kaishi, 1970, vol 86, pp. 35–40.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. Azuma, S. Goto, and N. Takebe:Nippon Kogyo Kaishi, 1968, vol. 84, pp. 1082–88.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    CM. Hsiao and A. W. Schlechten:J. Metals, 1952, vol. 4, pp. 65–69.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    E.H. Baker : J. Chem. Soc. A, 1968, pp.1089–92.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    E. H. Baker : J. Chem. Soc. A, 1967, pp. 1558–60.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    V. Bratanov and K. Kunchev:Rudodobiv Met. (Bulg.), 1968, vol. 23, pp. 38–41.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. W. Ruddle:The Physical Chemistry of Copper Smelting, Inst. Min. Met., London, 1953, pp. 125–27.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    N. J. Themelis, G. C. McKerrow, P. Tarassoff, and G. D. Hallett:J. Metals, 1972, vol. 24, pp. 25–32.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    P. J. Mackey, G.C. McKerrow, and P. Tarassoff: TMS Paper Selection A75-81, TMS-AIME New York, NY, 1975.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. P.C. Hallowes: Report RRA-543, Brit. Non-Ferr. Met. Res. Assoc., London, 1940.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    F. E. Buch:Trans. AIME, 1949, vol. 182, pp. 127–37.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Shima and S. Nakao: Japanese Patent 74–94, 518.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    M. Shima and S. Nakao: W. German Patent 2,162,077 (22 June 1972).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    L. A. Mills, G. D. Hallett, and C. J. Newman:Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, J. C. Yannopoulos and J. C. Agarwal, eds., TMS-AIME, New York, NY, 1976, pp. 458–87.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    F. Johannsen and H. Vollmer:Erzmetall, 1960, vol. 13, pp. 313–22.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    C.W. Bale and J. M. Toguri:Can. Met. Quart., 1976, vol. 15, pp. 305–18.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    C. H. P. Lupis and J. F. Elliott:Acta Met., 1966, vol. 14, pp. 529–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    L. Brewer and G. M. Rosenblatt:Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, L. Eyring, ed., Academic Press, New York, NY, 1969, vol. 2, pp. 1–83.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. Drowart and P. Goldfinger:Quart. Rev. Chem. Soc. (London), 1966, vol. 20, pp. 545–57.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    V. Piacente, L. Malaspina, and G. Bardi:Rev. Int. Hautes Temper, et Refract., 1969, vol. 6, pp. 25–28.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    R. Schuhmann, P.C. Chen, P. Palanisamy, and D.H.R. Sarma:Metall. Trans. B, 1976, vol. 7B, pp. 95–101.ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    R.H. Hauge and J. L. Margrave:High Temperature Science, 1972, vol. 4, pp. 170–71.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    M. Huang, D.J. Meschi, and AW. Searcy:J. Electrochem. Soc., 1979, vol. 126, pp. 1825–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    M. Hino and T. Azakami:Nippon Kogyo Kaishi, 1981, vol. 97, pp. 1269–73.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    M. Nagamori and P. C. Chaubal:Metall. Trans. B, 1982, vol. 13B, p. 331.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Society for Metals and the Metallurgical Society of AIME 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Nagamori
    • 1
  • P. C. Chaubal
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre de Recherches MinéralesQuebec GovernmentSte-FoyCanada
  2. 2.Department of Metallurgical EngineeringUniversity of UtahSalt Lake City

Personalised recommendations