Microglial cerebrospinal fluid antibodies
Hallmark lesions of Alzheimer disease (AD) are filled with reactive immunocompetent microglia, suggesting that immunological aderrations may participate in the pathophysiology of this disorder. If immune-mediated processes are closely linked to neuronal break-down, it would be of importance to have a reliable means to detect these processes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) antibodies are discussed as such potential sources. The seredipitous use of the developing rat central nervous system (CNS) unexpectedly demonstrated that some AD CSF recognize amoeboid microglial cells. Similarly, AD CSF specifically stains activated microglia and neural macrophages in experimentally induced lesions. A cell-culture technique is described that allows rapid screening of CSF antibodies. Examination of CSF from a diversified dementia population revealed that AD CSF, in contrast to other dementia CSF, displayed remarkable selectivity toward microglial cells. Cortical biopsies from patients suspected to have AD were incubated with the patient's own CSF and that of confirmed AD patients. Both CSF samples recognized microglial cells in the cortical biopsy. AD CSF microglial antibodies appear to be significant in view of the increasing association between microglia and neuro degenerative processes in AD. These findings add further support to the concept that inflammation and similar immune mechanisms may contribute to to AD pathogenesis.
Index EntriesAlzheimer disease microglia diagnosis rat brain cerebrospinal fluid antibodies immune responses
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Baldinger S. and Blumenthal H. T. (1982) Neuroimmunology of the aging brain, inGeriatrics (Platt D, ed.), Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 283–299.Google Scholar
- Banati R. B., Schubert P., Rothe G., Gehrmann J., Rudolphi K., Valet G., and Kreutzberg G. W. (1994) Modulation of intracellular formation of reactive oxygen intermediates in peritoneal macrophages and microglia/brain macrophages by propentofylline.J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 14, 145–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dahlström A., Wigander A., Lundmark K., Gottfries C. G., and McRae A. (1990) Investigations on autoantibodies in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, using defined neuronal cultures.J. Neural Trans. (suppl) 29, 195–206.Google Scholar
- Ling E. A., Kaur C., and Wong W. C. (1992b) Expression of major histocompatibility complex antigens and CR3 complement receptors in activated microglia following an injection of ricin into the sciatic nerve in rats.Histol. Histopath 7, 93–100.Google Scholar
- McRae A., Blennon K., Gottfries C. G., Walin A., and Dahlström A. (1990) Brain specific antibodies in the CSF of patients with Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementias, inBiological Markers in Dementia of Alzheimer Type (Fowler C. J., Carlson L. A., Gottfries C. G., and Winblad B., eds.), Smith-Gordon, London, pp. 135–148.Google Scholar
- McRae A., Rudolphi K., and Keil M. (1993) Forebrain ischemia in monogolian gerbil: a model to investigate Alzheimer's disease microglial antibodies and amyloid,Soc. Neurosci. Abstract 19, 623.Google Scholar
- Rio-Hertega P. del. (1932) Microglial, inCytology and Cellular Pathology of the Nervous System, Vol. 2 (Penfield W., ed.), Paul B Hoeber, New York, pp. 481–584.Google Scholar