Advertisement

Metallurgical Transactions

, 2:2343 | Cite as

The morphology of martensite in iron alloys

  • G. Krauss
  • A. R. Marder
Invited Papers from Symposium on the Formation of Martensite in Iron Alloys

Abstract

Light and electron microscopy have been used to determine the main structural differences between the two major types of martensite in ferrous alloys. In the martensite that forms in dilute alloys of iron, the basic transformation unit takes the shape of a lath, and hence the term lath martensite is appropriate for identifying this morphology. Each lath is the result of a homogeneous shear, and successive shears produce a packet of parallel laths containing a high density of tangled dislocations. The other type, plate martensite, differs in the shape taken by a transformation unit and its transformation sequence is characterized by nonparallel plate formation. Investigation of a large number of binary ferrous systems shows that alloy composition and the transformation temperature influence the transition from lath to plate martensite. These two factors are discussed in terms of their possible effects on the plastic deformation mechanisms which must occur in the parent austenite and product martensite during transformation.

Keywords

Martensite Lath Martensite Plate Martensite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    A. R. Marder and G. Krauss:J. Metals. 1970, vol. 22, no. 2, p. 9.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. R. Marder and G. Krauss:Trans. ASM, 1967, vol. 60, pp. 651–60.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. R. Marder and G. Krauss:Trans. ASM, 1969, vol. 62, pp. 957–64.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. B. Greninger:Trans. ASM, 1942, vol. 30, pp. 1–26.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Cohen, E. S. Machlen, and V. G. Paranjpe:Thermodynamics in Physical Metallurgy, p. 242, ASM, Metals Park, Ohio. 1949.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. R. Troiano and A. B. Greninger:Metal Progr., 1946, vol. 50, pp. 303–07.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. G. Digges:Trans. ASM, 1940, vol. 28, pp. 575–607.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. B. Greninger and A. R. Troiano:Trans. ASM, 1940, vol. 28, pp. 537–74.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Kaufman and M. Cohen:Progress in Metal Physics, vol. 7, B. Chalmers and R. King, eds. p. 537, Pergamon Press, New York, vol. 7, 1958.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Esser, W. Eilender, K. Riedel, and E. Spenle:Arch. Eisenhuettenw, 1933. vol. 6, p. 389.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. J. Biby and J. Gordon Parr:J. Iron Steel Inst., 1964, vol. 202, pp. 100–04.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. M. Kelly and J. Nutting:Proc. Roy. Soc. 1960, (A), vol. 259, pp. 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. M. Kelly and J. Nutting:J. Iron Steel Inst., 1961, vol. 197, pp. 199–211.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. R. Speich and H. Warlimont:J. Iron Steel Inst., 1968, vol. 206, pp. 385–92.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. M. Chilton, C. J. Barton, and G. R. Speich:J. Iron Steel Inst., 1970, vol. 208, pp. 184–93.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    F. Osmond:Bull. de la Soc. d'Encouragement pour L'Industri National, 1895, vol. 10, p. 480.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Hanemann and A. Schrader:Trans. Am. Soc. Steel Treating, 1926, vol. 9, pp. 169–233.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    F. F. Lucas:Trans. Am. Soc. Steel Treating, 1924, vol. 6, pp 669–91.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Brook and A. R. Entwisle:J. Iron Steel Inst., 1965, vol. 203, pp. 905–12.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. B. Greninger and A. R. Troiano:Trans. AIME, 1940, vol. 140, pp. 307–36.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Oka and C. M. Wayman:Trans. ASM, 1969, vol. 62, pp. 370–79.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. R. Marder and A. O. Benscoter:Trans. ASM, 1968, vol. 61, pp. 293–99.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. S. Pascover: presented at the Fall Meeting of AIME, October, 1968.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. S. Pascover and S. V. Radeliffe:Trans. TMS-AIME: 1958, vol. 242, pp. 673–82.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. A. Lund and A. M. Lawson:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1966, vol. 236, pp. 581–83.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    E. A. Wilson:J. Iron and Steel Inst., 1968, vol. 206, pp. 164–68.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Miyagi and C. M. Wayman: presented at the Annual Meeting of the AIME, March, 1966.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    T. Bell and W. S. Owen:J. Iron. Steel Inst., 1967, vol. 205, pp. 428–34.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. Bell:J. Iron Steel Inst., 1968, vol. 206, pp. 1017–21.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. G. A. Biswas and I. Cold:J. Iron Steel Inst., 1968, vol. 206, pp. 494–97.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. M. Marder and A. R. Marder:Trans. ASM, 1969, vol. 62, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    W. S. Owen, E. A. Wilson, and T. Bell:High Strength Materials, V. F. Zackey, ed., p. 167, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1965.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Takeuchi, T. Honma, and H. Suzuki:J. Japan Inst. Metals, 1957, vol. 21, p. 51; T. Honma:J. Japan Inst. Metals, pp. 122, 126, 263.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. Gilbert and W. S. Owen:Acta Met., 1962, vol. 10, pp. 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    L. Kaufman and M. Cohen:Trans. AIME, 1956, vol. 206, pp. 1393–1401.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    G. R. Speich and P. R. Swann:J. Iron Steel Inst., 1965, vol. 203, pp. 480–85.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. H. Eckelmeyer and G. Krauss: presented at the Fall Meeting of AIME, 1967.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    G. R. Sirinivasen and W. S. Owen: presented at the Fall Meeting of AIME, 1969.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    F. Forster and E. Scheil:Z. Metallk., 1940, vol. 32, p. 165.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    R. P. Reed:Acta Met., 1967, vol. 15, pp. 1287–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. Krauss and W. Pitsch:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1965, vol. 233, pp. 919–26.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    R. L. Patterson and C. M. Wayman:Acta Met., 1966, vol. 14, pp. 347–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    K. Shimizu:J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1962, vol. 17, pp. 508–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. F. Breedis and C. M. Wayman:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1962, vol. 224, pp. 1128–33.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    E. S. Machlin and M. Cohen:Trans. AIME, 1951, vol. 191, pp. 1019–29.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    J. A. Klostermann and W. G. Burger:Acta Met., 1964, vol. 12, pp. 355–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    R. B. G. Yeo:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1962, vol. 224, pp. 1222–27.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    E. J. Efsic and C. M. Wayman:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1967, vol. 239, pp. 873–82.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    I. R. Sprung and J. F. Breedis: presented at the AIME Fall Meeting, 1967.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    L. Kaufman:Physical Properties of Martensite and Bainite, p. 49, Spec. Rept. 93,Iron Steel Inst., 1965.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    J. G. Parr:J. Iron Steel Inst., 1967, vol. 205, pp. 426–27.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    J. S. Pascover: presented at the Fall Meeting of AIME, October, 1968.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    H. Schumann:Arch. Eisenhuettenw., 1967, vol. 38, pp. 647–56.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    A. R. Troiano and F. T. McGuire:Trans. ASM, 1945, vol. 31, pp. 340–64.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    F. M. Walters and M. Gensamer:Trans. Am. Soc. Steel. Treating, 1932, vol. 19, pp. 608–23.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    P. M. Giles and A. R. Marder:Met. Trans., 1971, vol. 2, pp. 1371–78.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    M. J. Roberts:Met. Trans., 1970, vol. 1, pp. 3287–94.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    L. I. Lysak and B. I. Nikolin:Fiz. Metal. i Metalloved., 1964, vol. 17, pp. 708–13.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    A. R. Marder, A. O. Benscoter, and G. Krauss:Met. Trans., 1970, vol. 1, pp. 1545–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. B. Greninger and A. R. Troiano:Trans. AIME, 1949, vol. 185, pp. 590–98.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    B. A. Bilby and J. W. Christian:J Iron. Steel Inst., 1961, vol. 197, pp. 122–31.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    R. F. Vynnal and S. V. Radcliffe:Acta Met., 1967, vol. 15, pp. 1475–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    O. Johari and G. Thomas:Acta Met., 1965, vol. 13, pp. 1211–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    K. Shimizu and C. M. Wayman:Acta Met., 1966, vol. 14, pp. 1390–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    J. W. Christian:The Mechanism of Phase Transformations in Crystalline Solids, Inst. of Metals, Monograph No. 33, 1969.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    R. N. Caron: Ph.D. Dissertation, Lehigh University, 1970.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    G. R. Speich:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1969, vol. 245, pp. 2553–65.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    S. K. Das and G. Thomas:Met. Trans., 1970, vol. 1, pp. 325–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    W. D. Robertson:Physical Properties of Martensite and Bainite, pp. 26–29, The Iron and Steel Inst. Spec. Rept. 93, 1965.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    R. G. Davies and C. L. Magee:Met. Trans., 1970, vol. 1, pp. 2927–31.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Metallurgical Society of American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc., and American Society for Metals 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Krauss
    • 1
  • A. R. Marder
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgy and Materials ScienceLehigh UniversityBethlehem
  2. 2.Alloy Development Section, Homer Research LaboratoriesBethlehem Steel CorpBethlehem

Personalised recommendations