Metallurgical Transactions A

, Volume 10, Issue 11, pp 1781–1788 | Cite as

Oxide inclusions and tool wear in machining

  • Gloria M. Faulring
  • S. Ramalingam
Mechanical Behavior


The inclusions formed in experimental steels by calcium, aluminum, and silicon additions are characterized. The morphology, phase identity, elemental analyses, and semiquantitative wt pct of the inclusions in each steel are presented. A correlation of tool wear tests conducted on the experimental steels and the inclusion characteristics indicates that a major factor in tool flank wear is the high temperature hardness of the inclusion phases or inclusion abrasion. A steel containing glass-like inclusions produced minimal tool wear but when the inclusions were a crystalline silicate, tool wear increased. The most severe tool wear occurred when machining steels with CaO·6Al2O3, Al2O3, and/or AIN as the major inclusion phases. By judicious selection of the deoxidation practice, the formation of refractory type oxide inclusions may be prevented and inclusions that enhance machinability may be formed.


Wear Rate Tool Wear Carbide Tool Oxide Inclusion Tool Wear Rate 
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Copyright information

© American Society for Metals and the Metallurgical Society of AIME 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gloria M. Faulring
    • 1
  • S. Ramalingam
    • 2
  1. 1.Metals DivisionUnion Carbide CorporationNiagara Falls
  2. 2.School of Mechanical EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlanta

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