A case-control study on selenium, zinc, and copper in plasma and hair of subjects affected by breast and lung cancer
The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between plasma and hair levels of Se, Zn, and Cu, and cancer. We selected a total of 66 patients affected by either breast (38) or lung (28) cancer. They entered into the study at the onset of disease, and before any chemical or radiotherapy. Controls were randomly selected among healthy people and were matched for sex, age, smoking habits, and residence. In the group of breast cancer, a significant decrease in hair Se was found compared to controls (p<0.01), whereas plasma Se was only slightly decreased. No difference between cases and controls was detected in both hair and plasma levels of Zn and Cu. Subjects who developed lung cancer were significantly lower in hair Zn (p<0.05) and Cu (p<0.01) than controls, whereas there was no difference with regard to Se. In addition, plasma Cu of these patients was increased as compared to controls.
Index EntriesSelenium zinc copper breast cancer lung cancer plasma hair
O. Guillard, M. H. Biasis-Sauvetre, D. Reiss, and J. Gombert, Physiologie et pathologie du zinc,Pathol. Biol.
, 469–478 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
S. R. Marklund, N. G. Westman, E. Lundgren, and G. Ross, Copper and zinc containing superoxidedismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in normal and neoplastic human cell lines and normal human tissue,Cancer Res.
, 1955–1961 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
B. Halliwell and M. C. Gutteridge, Oxygen toxicity, oxygen radicals, transitional metals and disease,Biochem. J.
, 1–14 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
M. Schillaci, S. E. Martin, and J. A. Milner, The effects of dietary selenium on the biotrasformation of 7,12-di-methylbenz(α)anthracene,Mutat. Res.
, 31–37 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
N. M. Jacobs, Selenium inhibition of 1,2-dimethylydrazine-induced colon carcino-genesis.Cancer Res.
, 1646–1649 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
J. A. Milner, Effect of selenium on virally induced and trasplantable tumor models,Federation Proc.
, 2568–2571 (1985).Google Scholar
R. A. Le Boeuf and W. G. Hoekstra, Changes in cellular glutathione levels possible relation to selenium-mediate anticarcinogenesis,Federation Proc.
, 2563–2566 (1986).Google Scholar
S. Y. Yu, Y. J. Zhu, W. G. Li, and C. Hou, Chemoprevention trial of primary liver cancer with selenium supplementation in Quidong country of China.Metal Ions Biol. Med.
497–500 (1990).Google Scholar
P. Travaglini, P. Moriondo, and E. Togni, Effect of oral zinc administration on prolactine and thymulein circulating levels in patients with chronic renal failure,J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
, 186–190 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
M. R. Fenton and J. P. Burke, Subcellular zinc distribution in livers and tumors of plasmocytoma-bearing mice.Nutr. Res.
, 1383–1391 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
R. J. Shamberger, E. Rukovena, and A. K. Gongfield, Antioxidant and cancer. I: selenium in the blood of normals and cancer patients,J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
, 863–870 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
R. F. Burk, Selenium and cancer: meaning of serum selenium levels,J. Nutr.
, 1584–1586 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
J. A. Milner and M. E. Rice, Selenium and tumorigenesis, inSelenium in Biology and Medicine
, Part B, G. F. Combs, ed., Rheinhold, New York, pp. 1034–1043 (1987).Google Scholar
B. N. Gray, S. L. Marklund, and R. Barnard, Use of serum copper/zinc ratio in patients with large bowel cancer.J. Surg. Oncol.
, 230–232 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
I. Capel, M. Pinnock, D. Williams, and I. W. Hanham, The serum levels of some trace and bulk elements in cancer patients,Oncology
, 38–41 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
S. Gozda, A. D. Cavdar, A. Arcasoy, and N. Akkar, Serum copper and zinc levels and copper/zinc ratio in pediatric non Hodgkin’s lymphoma,Hacta Haematol
, 67–70 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
A. Adler, B. Safai, Y. Wang, and G. A. Menedev-Botetc, Serum zinc levels in patients with basal-cell carcinoma,J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol.
, 911–914 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
Y. Aldor, N. Walach, D. Modai, and Y. Horn, Zinc and copper levels in erythrocytes, plasma and whole blood in cancer patients,Klin. Wochenschr.
, 375–377 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
J. S. Morris, M. J. Stampfer, and W. C. Willet, Dietary selenium in humans: toenails as an indicator,Biol. Trace Elem. Research
, 529–537 (1983).Google Scholar
P. A. H. Van Noord, H. J. A. Collette, and M. J. Maas, Selenium levels in nails of premenopausal breast cancer patients assessed prediagnostically in a cohort nested case-referent study among women screened in the DOM Project,Int. J. Epidemiol.
, 318–322 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
P. Van’t Veer, R. P. J. Van Der Wielen, and J. F. Kok, Selenium in diet blood and toenails in relation to breast cancer: a case-control study.Am. J. Epidemiol.
, 987–990 (1990).Google Scholar
A. Taylor, Usefulness of measurements of trace elements in hair,Ann. Clin. Biochem.
, 364–378 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
S. Caroli, O. Senofonte, N. Violante, L. Fornarelli, and A. Powar, Assessment of reference values for elements in hair of urban normal subjects.Microchemical J.
, 174–183 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
P. Borella, S. Rovesti, E. Caselgrandi, and A. Bargellini, Quality control in hair analysis: a sistematic study on washing procedures for trace element determinations,Mikrochimica Acta
, 1–10 (1995).Google Scholar
W. C. Hawkes, C. C. Willhite, K. A. Craig, S. T. Omaye, D. N. Cox, W. N. Choy, and A. G. Hendrickx, Effects of excess selenomethionine on selenium status indicators in pregnant long-tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis),Biol. Trace Element Res.
, 281–297 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
E. E. Olson, I. S. Palmer, and E. E. Cary, Methods of the official fluorimetric. Method for selenium in plants,J. AOAC
, 117–121 (1975).Google Scholar
G. Vivoli, M. Bergomi, P. Borella, G. Fantuzzi, and E. Caselgrandi, Cadmium in blood, urine and hair related to human hypertension,J. Trace Elem. Electrolytes Health Dis.
, 139–145 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
H. Krsnjavi and D. Beker, Selenium in serum as possible parameter of assesment of breast disease,Breast Cancer Res. Tr
, 57–61 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
F. Mayer and R. Verreault, Erythrocyte selenium and breast cancer risk,Am. J. Epidemiol.
, 917–922 (1987).Google Scholar
F. Cavallo, M. Gerber, E. Marubini, S. Richardson, A. Barbieri, A. Costa, A. DeCarli, and H. Pujol, Zinc and copper in breast cancer. A joint study in Northern Italy and Southern France,Cancer
, 738–745 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
J. A. Garofalo, H. Ashikari, M. L. Lesser, C. Menendez-Botet, S. Cunningham-Rundles, M. K. Schwartz, and R. A. Good, Serum zinc, copper and the Cu/Zn ratio in patients with benign and malignant breast lesions,Cancer
, 2682–2685 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
J. T. Salonen, G. Alfthan, J. K. Huttunen, and P. Puska, Association between serum selenium and the risk of cancer,Am. J. Epidemiol.
, 342–349 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
G. W. Comstock, T. L. Bush, and K. Helzlsouer, Serum retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin E and selenium as related to subsequent cancer of specific sites,Am. J. Epidemiol.
, 115–121 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
P. A. van den Brandt, R. A. Goldbohm, P. Van’t Veer, P. Bode, E. Dorant, R. J. J. Hermus, and F. Sturmans, A prospective cohort study on selenium status and the risk of lung cancer,Cancer Res.
, 4860–4865 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
B. F. Issel, B. U. Mc Fayden, and E. T. Gum, Serum zinc levels in lung cancer patients,Cancer
, 1845–1848 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
B. Rosof and H. Spencer, Tissue distribution of zinc65
in tumor tissue and normal tissue in man,Nature
, 652–656 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
J. I. Allen, E. Bell, and M. G. Boosalis, Association between urinary zinc excretion and lymphocyte dysfunction in patients with lung cancerAm. J. Med.
, 209–212 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
T. Crea, V. Guerrin, F. Ortega, and P. Harteman, Zinc et systeme immunitaire,Ann. Med. Interne
, 447–451 (1990).Google Scholar
World Health Organisation, Selenium, Environmental Health Criteria, H58, WHO, Geneva, 1987.Google Scholar
S. L. Rizk and H. H. Sky-Peck, Comparison between concentration of trace elements in normal and neoplastic human breast tissue,Cancer Res.
, 5390–5394 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
C. Di Ilio, P. Sacchetta, G. Del Boccio, G. La Rovere, and G. Federici, Gluthatione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activity in normal and neoplastic human breast tissues,Cancer Lett.
, 37 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
C. P. Siegers, H. Bose-Younes, E. Thies, R. Hoppenkaps, and M. Younes, Glutathione and GSH-dependent enzymes in the tumorous and non tumorous mucosa of the human colon and rectum,J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
, 238–240 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
C. Di Ilio, G. Del Boccio, R. Casaccia, A. Aceto, F. Di Giacomo, and G. Federici, Selenium level and glutathione dependent enzymes activities in normal and neoplastic human lung tissues,Carcinogenesis
, 281–285 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
W. Dewis and W. J. Pories, Inhibition of spectrum of animal tumors by dietary zinc deficiency,J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
, 375–381 (1972).Google Scholar
B. L. Mills, W. L. Broghamer, P. J. Higgins, and R. D. Lindeman, A specific dietary zinc requirement for the growth of the Walker 256/M1 tumor in the rat,Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
, 1661–1669 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
B. L. Mills, W. L. Broghamer, P. J. Higgins, and R. D. Lindeman, Inhibition of tumor growth by zinc depletion of rats,J. Nutr.
, 746–756 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
A. G. Fuchs, R. Mariotto, and E. S. De Lustig, Serum and tissue copper content in two mammary adenocarcinomas with different biological behaviour,Eur. J. Cancer Clin. Oncol.
, 1347–1352 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar