Cell Biophysics

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 167–173 | Cite as

Zero-cost modification of bright field microscopes for imaging phase gradient on cells: Schlieren optics

  • Daniel Axelrod


A simple, zero-cost, reversible modification of a bright field microscope permits visualization of phase gradients in cells by transmitted illumination, yielding a Nomarski-like effect. This modification, based on schlieren optics, is simultaneously compatible with high-aperture epi-illumination fluorescence excitation. For many objectives that are intended for use in fluorescence work, but are unavailable in phase contrast versions, the modification provides a simple means for locating cells in culture with good image contrast and resolution.

Index Entries

microscope, bright field optics, schlieren schlieren optics fluorescence microscopy, of cell phase gradients phase gradients, of cells by microscopy cell culture, schlieren microscopic imaging of 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Axelrod
    • 1
  1. 1.Biophysics Research Division and Department of PhysicsThe University of MichiganAnn Arbor

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