Advertisement

Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 71, Issue 1, pp 611–616 | Cite as

Elemental analysis of blood of nigerian hypertensive subjects

  • O. A. Akanle
  • A. Akintanmide
  • M. A. Durosinmi
  • A. F. Oluwole
  • N. M. Spyrou
Section 6: Determinations of Trace Elements in Clinical and Health-Related Studies

Abstract

Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been used to obtain the concentrations of 11 elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Cd) in whole-blood samples of 16 hypertensive subjects (mean age: 52.5 ± 0.5 yr) and 18 age-matched controls (mean age: 51.5 ± 0.5 yr) in a Nigerian population. The results of the study indicate that the hypertensive subjects have significantly higher mean concentration of Cl, Cd, Cu, and Zn when compared with the controls, and the mean concentration of P, K, and Ca was found to be significantly lower in the hypertensive group in comparison to the controls. Furthermore, the Zn : Cd ratio was found to be significantly higher in the controls than in the hypertensives, and the Cu : Zn ratio was significantly higher in the hypertensives.

Index Entries

Trace elements hypertension blood pressure PIXE 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    R. Masironi, Cardiovascular mortality in relation to radioactivity and hardness of local water supplies in the USA,Bull. WHO 43, 687–697 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. D. Crawford, M. J. Gardener, and J. N. Morris, Changes in water hardness and local death rates,Lancet ii, 327–329 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. A. Schroeder, Cadmium as a factor in hypertension,J. Chron. Dis. 18, 647–656 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. A. Schroeder and J. Buckman, Cadmium hypertension its reversal in rats by a zinc chelate,Arch. Environ. Health 14, 963–697 (1967).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. F. Borgman, S. F. Lightsey, and W. R. Roberts, Hair element concentrations and hypertension in South Carolina,Roy. Soc. Health J. 102, 1–2 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Ueshima, M. Tanigaki, M. Iida, T. Shimamoto, and M. Konishi, Hypertension, salt and potassium,Lancet i, 504 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. F. Lever, R C. Berretta, J. J. Brown, D. L. Davis, R. Fraser, and J. S. Robertson, Sodium and potassium in essential hypertension,Br. Med. J. 283, 463–468 (1981).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. R. Meneely and H. D. Battarbee, High sodium-low potassium environment and hypertension,Am. J. Cardiol. 38, 768–785 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Ackely, E. Barrett-Conor, and L. Suorrez. Dairy products, calcium and blood pres- sure,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 38, 457–461 (1981).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Vivoli, R Borella, M. Bergomi, and G. Fantuzzi, Zinc and copper levels in serum, urine and hair of humans in relation to blood pressure,Sci. Total. Environ. 66, 55–64 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. T. Salonen, R. Salonen, M. Ihanainen, M. Parviainen, R. Seppanen, M. Kantola, et al., Blood pressure, dietary fats and antioxidants,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 48, 1226–1232 (1998).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. J. Shamberger, Correlation between Se level and cardiovascular disease,Sci. Total Environ. 17, 59–74 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. D. Thomson and M. F. Robinson, Selenium in human health and disease with emphasis on those aspects peculiar to New Zealand,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33, 303–323 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. Clayton, PIXAN the Lucas Heights PIXE Analysis Computer Package, Report AAEC/M113, Australian Atomic Energy Commission, Lucas Heights (1986).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. O. Ojo, A. F. Oluwole, M. A. Durosinmi, O. J. Ogunsola, O. A. Akanle, and N. M. Spyrou, Baseline levels of elemental concentrations in whole blood, plasma and ery- throcytes of Nigerian subjects,Biol. Trace Element Res. 45, 461–469 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Lener and B. Bibr, Cadmium and hypertension,Lancet i, 970 (1971). 17. L. M. Klevay, Coronary heart disease: zinc/copper hypothesis,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 28, 764–774 (1975).Google Scholar
  17. 18.
    D. A. McCarron, Low serum concentration of ionised calcium in patients with hyper- tension,N. Engl. J. Med. 307, 226–228 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 19.
    J. M. Belizan, J. V. Villar, and O. Pineda, Reduction of blood pressure with calcium supplementation,JAMA 249, 1161–1165 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. A. Akanle
    • 1
  • A. Akintanmide
    • 2
  • M. A. Durosinmi
    • 3
  • A. F. Oluwole
    • 4
  • N. M. Spyrou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK
  2. 2.Departments of MedicineObafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria
  3. 3.Departments of HaematologyObafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria
  4. 4.Departments of PhysicsObafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria

Personalised recommendations