Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 71, Issue 1, pp 169–179 | Cite as

Health-related monitoring and assessment of airborne particulate matter

An overview of recent IAEA programs
  • Robert M. Parr
  • Borut Smodiš
Section 3: Atmospheric Monitoring and Assessment of Trace Elements


Since 1992, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been promoting studies of air pollution using a standard design of air sampler that provides separation on filters into two size fractions with cutoffs of 2.5 and 10 Μm (approximately). These are the size ranges presently considered to have the most important health consequences. Such filter samples are highly amenable to analysis using nuclear and related techniques. After reviewing some of the health effects of airborne particulate matter and current air quality standards and guidelines, this article provides an overview of current and recent IAEA programs in this area, which involve collaborative activities with participants in more than 40 countries.

Index Entries

Airborne particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 ambient air quality standards Gent air sampler nuclear analytical techniques neutron activation analysis (NAA) particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analytical quality control 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    The Economist, pp. 89–91, 17 September 1994.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Schwartz, Air pollution and daily mortality: a review and meta analysis,Environ. Res. 64, 36–52 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. W. Dockerty, C. A. Pope, X. Xu, J. D. Spengler, J. H. Ware, M. E. Fay, et al., An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities,New Engl. J. Med. 329, 1753–1759 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Health and environmental effects of particulate matter, Fact Sheet July 17, 1997 (Internet Scholar
  5. 5.
    United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA’s revised particulate matter standards, Fact Sheet July 17, 1997 (Internet Scholar
  6. 6.
    Council of the European Union, Common Position (EC) No 57/98 relating to limit values for sulphur, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air,Offi. J. Eur. Commun., pp. C360/99-C360/122 (November 1998).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    World Health Organization,WHO Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, The Netherlands, (1999).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. K. Hopke, Y. Xie, T. Raunemaa, S. Biegalski, S. Landsberger, W. Maenhaut, et al. Characterization of the Gent stacked filter unit PM10 sampler,Aerosol Sci. Technol. 27, 726–735 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. K. Hopke, Clarkson University, personal communication (1998).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Kucera, R. M. Parr, B. Smodis, and A. Fajgelj, Use of INAA and other analytical techniques in the characterization of reference air filters. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Modern Trends in Activation Analysis,J. Nucl. Radioanal. Chem., in press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert M. Parr
    • 1
  • Borut Smodiš
    • 1
  1. 1.International Atomic Energy AgencyViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations