Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 10, Issue 1–3, pp 27–40 | Cite as

An orally administered microcapsule system for treating chronic renal failure patients

  • D. L. Gardner
  • C. M. Kjellstrand
  • C. R. Hassler
  • D. J. Fink
  • D. C. Emmerling
Biotechnology: Enzymes, Cells, and Microorganisms


Ingestible adsorbents for the removal of uremic metabolites are being investigated as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of chronic uremia. In particular, a microcapsule product containing urease and zirconium phosphate (UZP) has been investigated for removing urea. A dog model, simulating chronic uremia, was developed to investigate: (1) the concentration of various nitrogenous metabolites (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) in the GI tract, (2) flux rates of H2O and various nitrogenous metabolites in the GI tract, and (3) the efficacy of the microcapsule product. The results of these perfusion studies suggest that urea and creatinine can be removed from the GI tract via ingestible adsorbents. In addition, the model may be useful in investigating suspect uremic toxins, e.g., guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA). The reduction of blood urea nitrogen levels in the dog model when the animal was fed the microcapsule product was limited by the capacity of the zirconium phosphate to bind ammonium ion. Preliminary clinical studies with the microcapsule product indicate that it may be of potential adjunctive therapy in patients suffering from chronic renal failure.

Index Entries

Animal model, of chronic renal failure adsorbents, in uremia microcapsules, for the treatment of chronic renal failure GI tract, and microcapsules nitrogenous metabolites, and microcapsules flux rate, and microcapsules uremia, treatment with microcapsules 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. L. Gardner
    • 1
  • C. M. Kjellstrand
    • 2
  • C. R. Hassler
    • 1
  • D. J. Fink
    • 1
  • D. C. Emmerling
    • 1
  1. 1.Battelle-Columbus LaboratoriesColumbus
  2. 2.Hennepin County Medical CenterMinneapolis

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