Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 245–259 | Cite as

Rapid fermentation of beer using an immobilized yeast multistage bioreactor system

Balance Control of Extract and Amino Acid Uptake
  • Yoshihiro Yamauchi
  • Takanori Okamoto
  • Hiroshi Murayama
  • Akira Nagara
  • Tadashi Kashihara
  • Masasi Yoshida
  • Koichi Nakanishp
Original Articles


A multistage bioreactor system for rapid beer fermentation was developed. The main fermentation process, which conventionally requires 7 d, could be shortened to 2 d by this system. The concentration of esters and higher alcohols are major factors in brewery fermentation, their production being closely related to the yeast growth phase. Yeast metabolism was successfully subdivided into a growth and a restricted phase through a combination of a continuous stirredtank reactor (CSTR) and an immobilized yeast packed-bed reactor (PBR). Production of higher alcohols was high in the CSTR because of its association with the level of biosynthetic activityde novo. A small amount was also produced in the PBR, however, possibly a result of an overflow in carbohydrate metabolism. Ester formation mainly occurred in the PBR, a linear increase in the level of ester being observed with flow through the PBR. The reactor system control strategy was to maximize the level of both higher alcohol and ester formation. The CSTR/PBR control range, based on extract consumption, was varied between 1:1 and 1:2. A ratio of 1:1 tended to create a flat beer, whereas a ratio 1:2 gave a beer of richer quality. Amino acid uptake by the yeast directly contributed to a reduction in the wort pH, whereas no relation could be observed between the level of organic acid production and pH.

Index Entries

Immobilized microorganisms bioreactor yeast amino acid metabolism higher alcohol ester beer brewing 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshihiro Yamauchi
    • 1
  • Takanori Okamoto
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Murayama
    • 1
  • Akira Nagara
    • 1
  • Tadashi Kashihara
    • 1
  • Masasi Yoshida
    • 1
  • Koichi Nakanishp
    • 1
  1. 1.Technical Center, Technology Development Department, Beer DivisionKirin Brewery Co., Ltd.YokohamaJapan

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