Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 39, Issue 2–3, pp 245–256 | Cite as

Effect of molybdenum supplementation onN-nitroso-N-methylurea-induced mammary carcinogenesis and molybdenum excretion in rats

  • Carol D. Seaborn
  • Shiang P. Yang


Molybdenum (Mo) supplementation reduces the incidence of nitrosamine-induced tumors in the esophagus and forestomach of laboratory animals, and the incidence of mammary cancer in female rats induced byN-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU). The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of graded amounts of Mo on NMU-induced mammary carcinogenesis, and on the excretion of Mo and copper (Cu). Female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 5 wk were givenad libitum a low-Mo (0.026 mg/kg) diet and deionized water. After 15 d, a single SC injection of 50 mg NMU/kg body wt was administered to each of 30 rats in groups 2–5. Eight rats in group 1 served as untreated control. One week after the carcinogen treatment, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 mg Mo from sodium molybdate were added to each liter of drinking water for groups 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Groups 1 and 2 did not receive any Mo supplementation. After the rats had been Mosupplemented for 38, 67, and 85 d, 48-h urine and fecal samples were collected from the same 48 rats, and Mo and Cu were determined. Molybdenum seemed to have little effect on Cu excretion. At each time interval, animals fed 0 or 0.1 mg Mo/L excreted more Mo in feces than in urine, whereas rats fed 1 and 10 mg Mo/L water excreted more Mo in urine than in feces, which indicates that Mo absorption was not easily saturated as the amount of Mo increased. However, the liver became saturated with Mo when 0.1–1 mg Mo/L was fed. The total number of palpable tumors per group 101 d after NMU administration was 109, 115, 101, and 81, and the total carcinomas per group were 92, 96, 86, and 65 for the animals in groups 2–5, respectively. The results indicate that supplemental Mo in the amount of 10 mg/L of drinking water inhibited mammary carcinogenesis.

Index Entries

Molybdenum breast cancer copper N-nitroso-N-methylurea 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    R. J. Burrell, W. A. Roach, and A. Shadwell,J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 36, 201–209 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. W. Berg, W. Haenszel, and S. S. Devesa,7th Natl. Cancer Conf. Proc. 459–464, (1973).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    X. M. Luo, H. J. Wei, G. G. Hu, A. L. Shang, Y. Y. Lin, S. M. Lu, and S. P. Yang,Fed. Proc. 40, 928 (abstract) (1981).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    X. M. Luo, H. J. Wei, and S. P. Yang,J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 71, 75–80 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. J. Wei, X. M. Luo, and S. P. Yang,J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 74, 469–473 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    American Institute of Nutrition,J. Nutr. 107, 1340–1348 (1977).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    American Institute of Nutrition,J. Nutr. 110, 1726 (1980).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. T. Yang and S. P. Yang,J. Nutr. 119, 221–227 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    O. C. Deng, N. S. Wang, and C. H. Chen,Acta Sci. Natl. Univ. Fudan. 11, 197–202 (1966).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Perkin Elmer,Analytical Methods for Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT, 1982.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. J. Thompson and L. D. Meeker,Cancer Res. 43, 1628–1629 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Young and R. C. Hallowes,Pathology of Tumors in Laboratory Animals, vol. 1, Part I, Pub. No. 5, V. S. Turnsov, ed., International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC Sci., Lyon, (1973).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    SAS Institute, Inc.SAS User's Guide: Statistics Version 5 Edition, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, 1985.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. G. D. Steel and J. H. Torrie,Principle and Procedures of Statistics—A Biological Approach, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. B. Huggins, N. Ueda, and M. Weissler,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 1185–1188 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. F. Mills and G. K. Davis, inMolybdenum in Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, 5th ed., vol. 1, W. Mertz, ed., Academic, New York, 1987, pp. 429–463.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. D. Bogden, H. R. Chung, F. W. Kemp, K. Holding, K. S. Bruening, and Y. Naveh,J. Nutr. 116, 2432–2442 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. P. Dowdy, G. A. Kunz, and H. E. Sauberlich,J. Nutr. 99, 491–496 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Druckery, R. Preussman, and S. Ivankovic,Z. Krebsforsch. 69, 103–201 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. R. L'Abbe, E. R. Chavez, P. W. F. Fischer, and K. D. Trick,TEMA-6 249–251 (1987).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. T. Yang, C. D. Seaborn, and S. P. Yang,Fed. Proc. 46, 749 (abstract) (1987).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Komada, Y. Kise, M. Nakagawa, M. Yamamura, and K. Hioki,Cancer Res. 50, 2418–2422 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Nishigori and D. Toft,Biochem. 19, 77–83 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    B. E. Braun, M. Krieg, K. Smith, and A. Lammel,Mol. Cell. Endocrin. 26, 177–188 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    G. Shyamala and L. Leonard,J. Biol. Chem. 255, 6028–6031 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Nandi,J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 21, 1039–1063 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    D. P. Edwards, G. C. Chamness, and W. L. McGuire,Biochim. Biophys. Acta 560, 457–486 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    T. V. Fungwe, F. Buddingh, M. T. Yang, and S. P. Yang,TEMA-6 619–620 (1987).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. H. Hankin and V. Rawlings,Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31, 2005–2016 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. T. Tseng,Cancer Res. 40, 3112–3115 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    L. Turcot-Lemay and P. A. Kelly,Cancer Res. 40, 3232–3240 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    W. F. Lindsey, T. K. DasGupta, and C. W. Beattie,Cancer Res. 41, 3857–3862 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carol D. Seaborn
    • 1
  • Shiang P. Yang
    • 2
  1. 1.Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research CenterUnited States Department of AgricultureGrand Forks
  2. 2.Food and NutritionTexas Tech UniversityLubbock

Personalised recommendations