Advertisement

Estuaries and Coasts

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 232–245 | Cite as

Primary production in Long Island sound

  • Nicole L. Goebel
  • James N. Kremer
  • Christopher A. Edwards
Article

Abstract

Daily and annual integrated rates of primary productivity and community respiration were calculated using physiological parameters measured in oxygen-based photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) incubations at 8 stations throughout central and western Long Island Sound (cwLIS) during the summer and autumn of 2002 and 2003 and the late spring of 2003. Each calculation takes into account actual variations in incident irradiance over the day and underwater irradiance and standing stock with depth. Annual peak rates, ±95% confidence interval of propagated uncertainty in each measurement, of gross primary production (GPP, 1,730±610 mmol O2 m−2 d−1), community respiration (Rc, 1,660±270 mmol O2 m−2 d−1), and net community production (NCP, 1,160±1,100 mmol O2 m−2 d−1) occurred during summer at the western end of the Sound. Lowest rates of GPP (4±11 mmol O2 m−2 d−1), Rc (−50±300 mmol O2 m−2 d−1), and NCP (−1,250±270 mmol O2 m−2 d−1) occurred during late autumn-early winter at the outer sampled stations. These large ranges in rates of GPP, Rc, and NCP throughout the photic zone of cwLIS are attributed to seasonal and spatial variability. Algal respiration (Ra) was estimated to consume an average of 5% to 52% of GPP, using a literature-based ratio of Ra:Rc. From this range, we established that the estimated Ra accounts for approximately half of GPP, and was used to estimate daily net primary production (NPP), which ranged from 2 to 870 mmol O2 m−2 d−1 throughout cwLIS during the study. Annual NPP averaged 40±8 mol O2 m−2 yr−1 for all sampled stations, which more than doubled along the main axis of the Sound, from 32±14 mol O2 m−2 yr−1 at an eastern station to 82±25 mol O2 m−2 yr−1 at the western-most station. These spatial gradients in productivity parallel nitrogen loads along the main axis of the Sound. Daily integrals of productivity were used to test and formulate a simple, robust biomass-light model for the prediction of phytoplankton production in Long Island Sound, and the slope of the relationship was consistent with reports for other systems.

Keywords

Phytoplankton Gross Primary Production Phytoplankton Production Marine Ecology Progress Series Photic Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Anderson, T. H. andG. T. Taylor. 2001. Nutrient pulses, plankton blooms, and seasonal hypoxia in western Long Island Sound.Estuaries 24:228–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balch, W. M. andC. F. Byrne. 1994. Factors affecting the estimation of primary production from space.Journal of Geophysical Research 99:7555–7570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Behrenfeld, M. J. andP. G. Falkowski. 1997. A consumer's guide to phytoplankton primary productivity models.Limnology and Oceanography 42:1479–1491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behrenfeld, M. J., E. Maranon, D. A. Sigel, andS. B. Hooker. 2002. Photoacclimation and nutrient-based model of light-saturated photosynthesis for quantifying oceanic primary production.Marine Ecology Progress Series 228:103–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bender, M., K. Grande, K. Johnson, J. Marra, P. J. L. Williams, J. Sieburth, M. Pilson, C. Langdon, G. Hitchcock, J. Orchardo, C. Hunt, P. Donaghay, andK. Heinemann. 1987. A comparison of four methods for determining planktonic community production.Limnology and Oceanography 32:1085–1098.Google Scholar
  6. Bender, M., J. Orchardo, M. L. Dickson, R. Barber, andS. Lindley. 1999. In vitro O2 fluxes compared with14C production and other rate terms during the JGOFS Equatorial Pacific experiment.Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers 46:637–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boynton, W. R., W. M. Kemp, andC. W. Keefe. 1982 A comparative analysis of nutrients and other factors influencing estuarine phytoplankton production, p. 69–90.In V. S. Kennedy (ed.), Estuarine Comparisons, Proceedings of the Sixth Biennial International Estuarine Research Conference. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Brush, M. J., J. W. Brawley, S. W. Nixon, andJ. N. Kremer. 2002. Modeling phytoplankton production: Problems with the Eppley curve and an empirical alternative.Marine Ecology Progress Series 238:31–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cole, B. E. 1989. Temporal and spatial patterns of phytoplankton production in Tomales Bay, California, USA.Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 28:103–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cole, B. E. andJ. E. Cloern 1987. An empirical model for estimating phytoplankton productivity in estuaries.Marine Ecology Progress Series 36:299–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Geider, R. J. 1992. Respiration: Taxation without representation? p. 333–360.In P. G. Falkowski and A. D. Woodhead (eds.), Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Goebel, N. L. and J. N. Kremer. 2006. Spatial variability of photosynthetic parameters and community respiration in Long Island Sound. Re-submitted with revisions toMarine Ecological Progress Series in press.Google Scholar
  13. Harding, L. W., M. E. Mallonee, andE. S. Perry. 2002. Toward a predictive understanding of primary productivity in a temperate, partially stratified estuary.Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 55:437–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Harding, L. W., B. W. Meeson, andT. R. Fisher. 1986. Phytoplankton production in two East-Coast estuaries—Photosynthesis light functions and patterns of carbon assimilation in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays.Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 23:773–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. HydroQual, I. 1996. Water quality modeling analysis of hypoxia in Long Island Sound using LIS 3.0. Report No. NENG0035. HydroQual, Inc., Mahwah, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  16. HydroQual, I. 1999. Newtown Creek water pollution control project, East River water quality plan. Task 10.1: Construct SWEM; Sub-task 10.4: Calibrate SWEB water quality; Sub-task 10.6: Validate SWEM water quality. HydroQual, Inc., Mahwah, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  17. Iriarte, A., I. deMadariaga, F. DiezGaragarza, M. Revilla, and E. Orive. 1997. Primary plankton production, respiration and nitrification in a shallow temperate estuary during summer.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 208:127–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Keller, A. A. 1989. Modeling the effects of temperature, light and nutrients on primary productivity: An empirical and mechanistic approach.Limnology and Oceanography 34:82–95.Google Scholar
  19. Kelly, J. R. andP. H. Doering. 1997. Monitoring and modeling primary production in coastal waters: Studies in Massachusetts Bay 1992–1994.Marine Ecology Progress Series 148:155–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kemp, W. M., E. M. Smith, M. Marvin-Dipasquale, andW. R. Boynton. 1997. Organic carbon balance and net ecosystem metabolism in Chesapeake Bay.Marine Ecology Progress Series 150: 229–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lancelot, C. andS. Mathot. 1985. Biochemical fractionation of primary production by phytoplankton in Belgian coastal waters during short-and long-term incubations with 14C-bicarbonate.Marine Biology 86:219–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Langdon, C. 1993. The significance of respiration in production measurements based on oxygen.ICES Marine Science Symposium 197:69–78.Google Scholar
  23. Moigis, A. G. andK. Gocke. 2003. Primary production of phytoplankton estimated by means of the dilution method in coastal waters.Journal of Plankton Research 25:1291–1300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nixon, S. W. 1992. Quantifying the relationship between nitrogen input and the productivity of marine ecosystems, p. 57–83.In Proceedings of the International Symposium for Ecology. Shimane Prefecture. Shimane Prefecture, Japan.Google Scholar
  25. NYDEC (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation) and CTDEP (Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection). 2000. A total maximum daily load analysis to achieve water-quality standards for dissolved oxygen in Long Island Sound. NYDEC, Albany, New York and CTDEP, Hartford, Connecticut.Google Scholar
  26. Oviatt, C., A. Keller, andL. Reed. 2002. Annual primary production in Narragansett Bay with no bay-wide winter-spring phytoplankton bloom.Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 54: 1013–1026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pennock, J. R. andJ. H. Sharp. 1986. Phytoplankton production in the Delaware Estuary—Temporal and spatial variability.Marine Ecology Progress Series 34:143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Press, W. H., B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, andW. T. Vetterling. 1992. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  29. Riley, G. 1941. Plankton studies. III. Lond Island Sound.Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection 7:1–93.Google Scholar
  30. Riley, G. 1941. Oceanography of Long Island Sound, 1952–1954: IX. Production and utilization of organic matter.Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection 15:324–344.Google Scholar
  31. Robinson, C. andP. J. L. Williams. 2005. Respiration and its measurement in surface marine waters, p. 147–180.In P. A. Del Giorgio and P. J. L. Williams (eds.), Respiration in Aquatic Ecosystems. University Press, Oxford, U.K.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ryther, J. H. andC. Yentsch. 1957. The estimation of phytoplankton production in the ocean from chlorophyll and light data.Limnology and Oceanography 2:281–286.Google Scholar
  33. Smith, E. M. andW. M. Kemp. 1995. Seasonal and regional variations in plankton community production and respiration for Chesapeake Bay.Marine Ecology Progress Series 116:217–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Smith, E. M. andW. M. Kemp. 2001. Size structure and the production/respiration balance in a coastal plankton community.Limnology and Oceanography 46:473–485.Google Scholar
  35. SPSS. 2003. Rel. 12.0.1 for Windows. The Apache Software Foundation, Chicago, Illinois.Google Scholar
  36. Vollenweider, R. A. 1974. A Manual on Methods for Measuring Primary Production in Aquatic Environments. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  37. Walsby, A. E. 1997. Numerical integration of phytoplankton photosynthesis through time and depth in a water column.New Phytologist 136:189–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Walsby, A. E. 2001. Determining the photosynthetic productivity of a stratified phytoplankton population.Aquatic Sciences 63:18–43.Google Scholar
  39. Weger, H., R. Herzig, P. Falkowski, andD. Turpin. 1989. Respiratory losses in the light in a marine diatom: Measurements by short-term mass spectrometry.Limnology and Oceanography 34:1153–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Welsh, B. andF. Eller. 1991. Mechanisms controlling summertime oxygen depletion in western Long Island Sound.Estuaries 14:265–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wunsch, C. 1996. The Ocean Circulation Inverse Problem, 1st edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Masachusetts.Google Scholar

Sources of Unpublished Materials

  1. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP), unpublished data. Matt Lyman, Environmental Analyst, CTDEP, 79 Elm Street, Hartford, Connecticut 06106-5127.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Estuarine Research Federation 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole L. Goebel
    • 1
  • James N. Kremer
    • 1
  • Christopher A. Edwards
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Marine SciencesUniversity of Connecticut at Avery PointConnecticutGroton
  2. 2.Ocean Sciences DepartmentUniversity of CaliforniaCaliforniaSanta Cruz

Personalised recommendations