Advertisement

La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento (1971-1977)

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 205–232 | Cite as

Recent advances in short-time-constant astrophysics

  • G. Cavallo
Article
  • 15 Downloads

Conclusions

The main body of this work was presented at the Meeting of the Italian Physical Society, in November 1972. Its modest aim was that of giving a broad although necessarily superficial view of a large number of recent exciting advances in astrophysics, by means of a somewhat artificial unification. Whether we can talk about a «short-time-constant astrophysics» or not will probably remain a matter of taste, since this classification probably arises more from a way of considering apparently unrelated phenomena by means of analogies, than from a real, physically grounded similarity. If this field is admitted to exist, we think we have indicated the analogies, and that this field is very lively, very promising, and has many facets (although in some issues we have tried to exert some negative criticism). If on the contrary this branch of astrophysics is not admitted to exist, we think that the present review can be useful to the profane as a selected bibliography and a guide through the intricate field of modern astrophysics.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    H. Bondi:Quart. Journ. Roy. Astron. Soc.,11, 443 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    F. J. Dyson:Neutron Stars and Pulsars (Roma, 1971), p. 9.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    I. S. Shklovsky:Cosmic Radio Waves (Cambridge, 1960), p. 82.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    A. Hewish, S. J. Bell, J. D. Pilkington, P. F. Scott andR. A. Collins:Nature,217, 709 (1968).ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    B. Warner andE. L. Robinson:Nature, Phys. Sci.,239, 2 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    I. Lerche:Astrophys. Spa. Sci.,17, 30 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    W. A. Dent:Science,175, 1105 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    W. A. Dent:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,175, L55 (1972).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    A. R. Whitney, I. I. Shapiro, A. E. E. Rogers, D. S. Robertson, C. A. Knight, R. M. Goldstein, G. E. Marandino andN. R. Vandenberg:Science,173, 225 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    P. Couderc:Ann. Astrophys.,2, 271 (1939).ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    P. Morrison andL. Sartori:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,152, L139 (1968).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    A. Cavaliere, P. Morrison andL. Sartori:Science,173, 525 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    M. J. Rees:Nature,211, 468 (1966).ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    V. L. Ginzburg andS. I. Syrovatskii:Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.,7, 375 (1969).ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    G. H. Rieke andF. J. Low:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,177, L115 (1972).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    H. van der Laan:Nature,211, 1131 (1966).ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    M. J. Rees:Month. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.,135, 345 (1967).ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    H. van der Laan:Pont. Accad. Scienti., Scripta Varia,35, 258 (1970).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    E. Salpeter:Astrophys. Journ.,147, 434 (1967).ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    W. M. Cronyn:Astrophys. Journ.,174, 281 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    S. Chandrasekhar:Month. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.,112, 475 (1952).MathSciNetADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    B. J. Rickett:Nature,221, 158 (1969).ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    W. J. Medd, B. H. Andrew, G. A. Harvey andJ. L. Locke:Mem. Roy. Astron. Soc.,77, 109 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    B. Bertotti:Riv. Nuovo Cimento,2, 102 (1970).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    F. Pacini:The Pulsar Phenomenon (Firenze, 1972).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    V. L. Ginzburg:Sov. Phys. Usp.,14, 83 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    D. ter Haar:Phys. Lett.,3 C, 59 (1972).Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    M. Ruderman:Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.,10, 427 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    J. G. Davies, A. G. Lyne andJ. H. Seiradakis:Nature,240, 230 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    G. S. Tsarevsky:Astrophys. Lett.,10, 71 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    M. Ruderman:Phys. Rev. Lett.,27, 1306 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    V. G. Endean:Nature,241, 184 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    J. H. Taylor andG. R. Huguenin:Astrophys. Journ.,167, 273 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    G. R. Huguenin, R. N. Manchester andJ. H. Taylor:Astrophys. Journ.,169, 97 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    J. D. Scargle andE. A. Harlan:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,159, L143 (1970).Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    J. Rankin, C. Counselman III andD. Richards:Astron. Journ.,76, 686 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    J. E. Gunn andJ. P. Ostriker:Astrophys. Journ.,160, 979 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    M. Grewing andM. Walmsley:Astron. Astrophys.,11, 65 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    M. Guelin, P. Encrenaz andS. Bonazzola:Astron. Astrophys.,14, 387 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    C. P. Gordon, R. J. Gordon andA. M. Shalloway:Nature,227, 129 (1969).ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    F. R. Harden andP. Gorenstein:Nature,241, 107 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    D. Sadeh, M. Meidav, H. W. Smathers, T. A. Chubb andH. Friedman:Nature,235, 151 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    J. D. Kurfess, M. Meidav andD. S. Sadeh:Nature,236, 447 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    F. Frontera, F. Fuligni, D. Brini andC. Cavani:Lett. Nuovo Cimento,5, 131 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    R. Giacconi, H. Gursky, E. Kellogg, S. Murray, E. Schreier andH. Tananbaum:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,167, L67 (1971).Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    E. Schreier, R. Levinson, H. Gursky, E. Kellogg, H. Tananbaum andR. Giacconi:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,172, L79 (1972).Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    H. Tananbaum, H. Gursky, E. Kellogg, R. Levinson, E. Schreier andR. Giacconi:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,174, L143 (1972).Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    H. Tananbaum: paper delivered atIAU Symposium 55 (Madrid, 1972).Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    H. Gursky:Observations of galactic X-ray sources (Paris, in press).Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    C. Jones, W. Forman, W. Liller, E. Schreier, H. Tananbaum, E. Kellogg, H. Gursky andR. Giacconi:Bull. Am. Astron. Soc.,4, 329 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    B. Margon andJ. D. Wray:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,174, L141 (1972).Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    W. Liller: IAU Circ. 2415 (1972).Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    J. N. Bahcall andA. N. Bahcall: IAU Circ. 2427 (1972).Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    W. Liller: IAU Circ. 2427 (1972).Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    A. Davidsen, J. P. Henry, J. Middleditch andH. E. Smith:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,177, L119 (1972).Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    D. O. Lamb andJ. M. Sorvari: IAU Circ. 2422 (1972).Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    B. L. Webster, W. L. Martin, M. W. Feast andP. J. Andrews:Nature, Phys. Sci.,240, 183 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    W. A. Hiltner, J. Werner andP. Osmer:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,175, L19 (1972).Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    K. Brecher:Nature,239, 325 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    C. M. Wade andR. M. Hjellming:Nature,235, 271 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    L. L. E. Braes andG. K. Miley:Nature,232, 246 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. [62]
    G. R. Blumenthal andW. H. Tucker:Nature,235, 97 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. [63]
    C. T. Bolton:Nature, Phys. Sci.,241, 125 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. [64]
    D. F. Lester, I. G. Nolt andJ. W. Radositz:Nature, Phys. Sci.,241, 125 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. [65]
    R. M. Hjellming andC. M. Wade:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,164, L1 (1971).Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    J. Gribbin:Astrophys. Lett.,8, 175 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. [67]
    Z. Kopal:Close Binary Systems (London, 1959).Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    G. R. Burbidge:Comm. Astrophys. Spa. Sci.,4, 105 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. [69]
    F. Zwicky:Astronautic. Acta,17, 4 (1972).Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    M. J. Rees:Astronautic. Acta,17, 315 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. [71]
    G. Cavallo andA. Ventura:Astrophys. Spa. Sci.,19, 431 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  72. [72]
    S. A. Colgate, C. R. Mc Kee andP. D. Noerdlinger:Astrophys. Journ.,165, 509 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. [73]
    S. A. Colgate, C. R. Mc Kee andB. Blevins:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,173, L83 (1972).Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    D. L. Bertsch, A. Fisher andH. Ogelman: paper presented at theXII International Conference on Cosmic Rays (Hobart, 1972).Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    J. V. Jelley: private communication.Google Scholar
  76. [76]
    W. H. Press andK. S. Thorne:Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.,10, 335 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. [77]
    J. Weber:Nuovo Cimento,4 B, 197 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. [78]
    J. Weber:Nature,240, 28 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. [79]
    D. Sadeh andM. Meidav:Nature,240, 136 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. [80]
    T S. Mast, J. E. Nelson, J. Saarloos, R. A. Muller andB. A. Bolt:Nature,240, 140 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. [81]
    V. B. Braginskii, A. B. Manukin, E. I. Popov, V. N. Rudenko andA. A. Khorev:JETP Lett.,16, 108 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. [82]
    J. N. Bahcall andR. Davis jr.:Phys. Rev. Lett.,26, 662 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. [83]
    F. Reines, W. R. Kropp, P. Landecker, W. G. Sandie, J. Lathrop, H. W. Sobel, M. F. Crouch, D. Bourne, H. Coxell, D. Kramer andJ. P. F. Sellschop:Phys. Rev. Lett.,26, 1451 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. [84]
    W. N. Charman, J. V. Jelley, J. H. Fruin, E. R. Hodgson, P. F. Scott, J. R. Shakeshaft, G. A. Baird, T. Delaney, B. G. Lawless, R. W. P. Drewer, W. P. S. Meikle, R. A. Porter andR. E. Spencer:Nature,228, 346 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. [85]
    W. N. Charman, J. H. Fruin, J. V. Jelley, R. F. Haynes, E. R. Hodgson, P. F. Scott, J. R. Shakeshaft, G. A. Baird, T. J. Delaney, B. G. Lawless, R. W. P. Drever andW. P. S. Meikle:Nature,232, 177 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. [86]
    R. B. Partridge:Phys. Rev. Lett.,26, 912 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. [87]
    J. V. Jelley:Nature,234, 142 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. [88]
    G. A. Baird andM. A. Pomerantz:Phys. Rev. Lett.,28, 1337 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. [89]
    A. M. Wolfe andG. R. Burbidge:Nature,228, 1170 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. [90]
    D. Schwartz:Astrophys. Journ.,162, 439 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. [91]
    D. Schwartz, E. A. Boldt, S. S. Holt, P. J. Serlemitsos andR. D. Bleach:Nature,223, 112 (1971).Google Scholar
  92. [92]
    A. C. Fabian:Nature, Phys. Sci.,237, 19 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. [93]
    E. K. Conklin andR. Bracewell:Nature,216, 777 (1967).ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. [94]
    R. Browning, D. Ramsden andP. J. Wright:Nature,238, 138 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  95. [95]
    R. Browning, D. Ramsden andP. J. Wright:Nature, Phys. Sci.,235, 128 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. [96]
    W. L. Kraushaar, G. W. Clark, G. P. Garmire, R. Borken, P. Higbie, C. Leong andT. Thorsos:Astrophys. Journ.,177, 341 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. [97]
    F. W. Stecker:Nature, Phys. Sci.,241, 74 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. [98]
    K. Bennett, P. Peningo, G. K. Rochester, T. R. Sanderson andR. K. Sood:Nature,238, 31 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. [99]
    G. M. Frye, J. A. Staib, A. D. Zych, V. D. Hopper, W. R. Rawlinson andJ. A. Thomas:Nature,223, 1320 (1971).Google Scholar
  100. [100]
    G. M. Frye, P. A. Albats, A. D. Zych, J. A. Staib, V. D. Hopper, W. R. Rawlinson andJ. A. Thomas:Nature,231, 372 (1972).Google Scholar
  101. [101]
    G. W. Clark, G. P. Garmire andW. L. Kraushaar:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,153, L203 (1968).Google Scholar
  102. [102]
    E. O’Mongain:Nature,241, 376 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  103. [103]
    G. M. Frye, P. A. Albats, A. D. Zych, J. A. Staib, J. A. Thomas, V. D. Hopper andW. R. Rawlinson:Nature,233, 466 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  104. [104]
    T. Kato:Astrophys. Spa. Sci.,16, 478 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  105. [105]
    A. N. Bunner, P. L. Coleman, W. L. Kraushaar andD. Mc Cammon:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,168, L33 (1971).Google Scholar
  106. [106]
    R. J. Grader, R. W. Hill andJ. P. Stoering:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,161, L45 (1970).Google Scholar
  107. [107]
    P. Gorenstein, B. Harris, H. Gursky, R. Giacconi, R. Novick and andP. Vandenbout:Science,172, 369 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. [108]
    T. M. Palmieri, G. A. Burginyon, R. J. Grader, R. W. Hill, F. D. Seward andJ. P. Stoering:Astrophys. Journ.,169, 33 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. [109]
    F. D. Seward, G. A. Burginyon, R. J. Grader, R. W. Hill, T. M. Palmieri andJ. P. Stoering:Astrophys. Journ.,169, 515 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  110. [110]
    S. A. Ilovaisky andC. Ryter:Astron. Astrophys.,15, 224 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. [111]
    I. S. Shklovski andE. K. Sheffer:Nature,231, 173 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  112. [112]
    C. S. Bowyer, G. B. Field andJ. Mack:Nature,217, 32 (1968).ADSGoogle Scholar
  113. [113]
    A. N. Bunner, P. L. Coleman, W. L. Kraushaar andD. McCammon:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,172, L67 (1972);167, L3 (1971).Google Scholar
  114. [114]
    S. Hayakawa, T. Kato, T. Kohno, K. Nishimura, Y. Tanaka andK. Yamashita:Astrophys. Spa. Sci., in press.Google Scholar
  115. [115]
    S. Hayakawa, T. Kato, F. Makino, H. Ogawa, Y. Tanaka andK. Yamashita:Proceedings of the Interamerican Seminar on Cosmic Rays, Vol.1 (1970), p. 106.Google Scholar
  116. [116]
    V. Schwartsman:Sov. Astron.-A. J.,14, 662 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. [117]
    J. Ostriker, M. J. Rees andJ. Silk:Astrophys. Lett.,6, 179 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  118. [118]
    P. Strittmatter, K. Brecher andG. R. Burbidge: UCSD preprint.Google Scholar
  119. [119]
    P. Gorenstein andW. H. Tucker: ASE 2676 preprint.Google Scholar
  120. [120]
    G. Cavallo andH. M. Horstman:Nature, Phys. Sci.,235, 110 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  121. [121]
    T. Matilsky, H. Gursky, F. Kellogg, H. Tananbaum, S. Murray andR. Giacconi:Astrophys. Journ., in press.Google Scholar
  122. [122]
    W. H. Tucker:Astrophys. Journ.,161, 1161 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  123. [123]
    J. Silk:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,166, L39 (1971).Google Scholar
  124. [124]
    G. Cavallo andA. Messina:Astrophys. Lett.,10, 61 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. [125]
    R. Giacconi, P. Gorenstein, H. Gursky andJ. R. Waters:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,148, L119 (1967).Google Scholar
  126. [126]
    Reported, along with independent position measurements, byR. E. Price, F. D. Seward andC. D. Swift:Astrophys. Journ.,176, 611 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  127. [127]
    P. C. Gregory:Nature,239, 439 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  128. [128]
    P. C. Gregory, P. P. Kronberg, E. R. Seaquist, V. A. Hughes, A. Woodsworth, M. R. Viner andD. Retallack:Nature,239, 440 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. [129]
    R. M. Hjellming andB. Balick:Nature,239, 443 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  130. [130]
    Special Issue on Cyg X3,Nature, Phys. Sci.,239, No. 95 (1972).Google Scholar
  131. [131]
    D. R. Parsignault, H. Gursky, E. M. Kellogg, T. Matilsky, S. Murray, E. Schreier, H. Tananbaum andR. Giacconi:Nature, Phys. Sci.,239, 134 (1972).Google Scholar
  132. [132]
    C. R. Canizares, J. E. Mc Clintock, G. W. Clark, W. H. G. Lewin, H. W. Schnopper andG. F. Sprott:Nature, Phys. Sci.,241, 28 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  133. [133]
    J. A. Westphal, J. Kristian, J. P. Huchra, S. A. Sheltman andR. J. Brucato:Nature, Phys. Sci.,239, 134 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. [134]
    E. E. Becklin, J. Kristian, G. Neugebauer andC. G. Winn-Williams:Nature, Phys. Sci.,239, 130 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  135. [135]
    R. Lauqué, J. Lequeux andNguyen-Quang-Rieu:Nature, Phys. Sci.,239, 119 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  136. [136]
    R. Lauqué, J. Lequeux andNguyen-Quang-Rieu:Nature. Phys. Sci.,241, 94 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  137. [137]
    B. E. Turner:Nature, Phys. Sci.,239, 312 (1972).Google Scholar
  138. [138]
    H. F. Hinteregger, G. W. Catuna, C. C Counselman III,R. A. Ergas, R. W. King, C. A. Knight, D. S. Robertson, A. E. E. Rogers, I. I. Shapiro, A. R. Whitney, T. A. Clark, L. K. Hutton, G. E. Marandino, P. A. Perley, G. Resch andN. R. Vandenberg:Nature, Phys. Sci.,240, 159 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  139. [139]
    W. A. Aller andW. A. Dent:Nature, Phys. Sci.,239, 121 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. [140]
    R. W. Leach andR. Ruffini:Astrophys. Journ. Lett.,180, L15 (1973).Google Scholar
  141. [141]
    R. W. Hunstead: Cornell-Sydney University Astronomy Centre, preprint No. 281 (1972).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Fisica 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Cavallo
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorio Te.S.R.E.Bologna

Personalised recommendations