Growth of buckytubes on the anode at are discharge
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It is shown that for an arc discharge between carbon electrodes in an inert gas atmosphere the temperatures at the electrode surfaces play a key role in determining the structure and the electrode on which a deposit can grow. The heat balance equations determine that the anode temperature is higher due to the energy carried by the electrons. This leads to anode sublimation and deposition on the cathode. It is shown that by cathode heating, by anode cooling or by a combination of these, a deposit may be obtained on the anode due to cathode erosion. The deposit grown by the “inverse” method is compared with a deposit obtained on the cathode under the same conditions but at reverse supply voltage polarity. The material from both deposits, studied by TEM, shows that there are graphite crystals within the anode deposit, and that the carbon forms within have a relatively small number of structural defects while the buckytubes are greater in length than those within the cathode deposit. The reasons for these differences are discussed. In the “inverse” method, the constant decrease in cooling of the anode surface leads to an equalization of the anode and cathode temperatures. This creates conditions that favor buckytube growth.
KeywordsFullerene Cathode Deposit Heat Balance Equation Electrode Temperature Cathode Temperature
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