Advertisement

Journal of Ethology

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 63–71 | Cite as

Quantitative and qualitative differences between adult and juvenile agonistic behavior

  • Yuko Yamada
Article

Abstract

The behavioral interaction of juvenile male rats was compared to that of adults. It was found that there are clear differences both in the quantity and the quality of the agonistic behavior. Several behavioral elements, which have been considered as playful in previous studies, occurred more in juvenile interaction, while some other items characteristic of severe agonistic behavior were more frequent in the interaction of adults. Sequential analysis of behavior items also revealed that there are two patterns of agonistic behavior in rats. While juvenile rats showed the behavior pattern labelled "play-fighting" in previous studies, adult rats, on the other hand, showed both the play-like agonistic behavior pattern and the "serious fighting" pattern. The possible relationship between agonistic behavior among littermates and sexual behavior is also discussed.

Keywords

Sexual Behavior Behavior Pattern Upright Posture Agonistic Behavior Social Play 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, J.A. & R. Boice 1971 Effects of rearing on homosexual behavior in the male laboratory rat.Psyhonomic Science 23: 321–322.Google Scholar
  2. Baenninger, L.P. 1970 Social dominance orders in the rat: "spontaneous", food, and water competition.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 71: 202–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bakeman, R. & J.M. Gottman 1997 Representing observational data. In:Observing Interaction: An introduction to sequential analysis.2nd ed., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  4. Baldwin, J.D. & J.I. Baldwin 1974 Exploration and social play in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri).American Zoologist 14: 305–315.Google Scholar
  5. Barnett, S.A. 1958 An analysis of social behavior in wild rats.Proceedings of Zoological Society of London 130: 107–152.Google Scholar
  6. Barnett, S.A. 1960 Social behaviour among tame rats and among wild-white hybrids.Proceedings of Zoological Society of London 134: 611–621.Google Scholar
  7. Blanchard, R.J. & D.C. Blanchard 1984 Affect and aggression: An animal model applied to human behavior. In: R.J.Blanchard & D.C.Blanchard (Eds.)Advances in the Study of Aggression, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. Blanchard, R.J., D.C. Blanchard, T. Takahashi & M.J. Kelley 1977 Attack and defensive behaviour in the albino rat.Animal Behaviour 25: 622–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boreman, J. & E. Price 1972 Social dominance in wild and domestic norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).Animal Behaviour 20: 534–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calhoun, J.B. 1963 The Ecology and Sociology of the Norway Rat. Bethesda, Maryland: United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare.Google Scholar
  11. Drews, D.R. & F.H. Wulczyn 1975 Measuring dominance in rats.The Psychological Record 25: 573–581.Google Scholar
  12. Duffy, J.A. & S.E. Hendricks 1973 Influences of social isolation during development on sexual behavior of the rat.Animal Learning and Behavior 1: 223–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fagen, R. 1981 Animal Play Behavior. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Galef, B.G. 1970 Aggression and timidity: responses to novelty in feral Norway rats.Journal of Comparative Psychology 70: 370–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gerall, H.D. 1965 Effect of social isolation and physical confinement on motor and sexual behavior of guinea pigs.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 3: 460–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gerall, H.D., I.L. Ward & A.A. Gerall 1967 Disruption of the male rat’s sexual behavior induced by social isolation.Animal Behaviour 15: 54–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grant, E.C. 1963 An analysis of the social behaviour of the male laboratory rat.Behaviour 21: 260–281.Google Scholar
  18. Grant, E.C. & J.H. Mackintosh 1963 A comparison of the social postures of some common laboratory rodents.Behaviour 21: 246–259.Google Scholar
  19. Henry, J.D. & S.M. Herrero 1974 Social play in the american black bear: Its similarity to canid social play and an examination of its identifying characteristics.American Zoologist 14: 371–389.Google Scholar
  20. Hole, G. 1988 Temporal features of social play in the laboratory rat.Ethology 78: 1–20.Google Scholar
  21. Hole, G. 1991 The effects of social deprivation on levels of social play in the laboratory ratRattus norvegicus.Behavioral Processes 25: 41–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lehman, M.N. & D.B. Adams 1977 Statistical and motivational analysis of the social behaviors of the male laboratory rat.Behavior 61: 238–274.Google Scholar
  23. Mason, W.A. 1960 The effect of social restriction on the behavior of rhesus monkeys: I. Free social behavior.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 53: 582–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mason, W.A. 1965 Determinants of social behavior in young chimpanzees.Behavior of Nonhuman Primates 2: 335–364.Google Scholar
  25. Meaney, M.J. & J. Stewart 1981 A descriptive study of social development in the rat (Rattus norvegicus).Animal Behavior 29: 34–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Panksepp, J. 1981 The ontogeny of play in rats.Developmental Psychobiology 14: 327–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Panksepp, J. & W. Beatty 1980 Social deprivation and play in rats.Behavioral and Neural Biology 30: 197–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pellis, S.M. 1993 Sex and evolution of play fighting: A review and model based on the behavior of muroid rodents.Play Theory and Research 1, 55–75.Google Scholar
  29. Pellis, S.M. 1997 Targets and Tactics: The analysis of moment-to-moment decision making in animal combat.Aggressive Behavior 23: 107–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pellis, S.M. & V.C. Pellis 1987 Play-fighting differs from serious fighting in both target of attack and tactics of fighting in the laboratory ratRattus norvegicus.Aggressive Behavior 13: 227–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pellis, S.M. & V.C. Pellis 1991 Role reversal changes during the ontogeny of play fighting in male rats: Attack versus defense.Aggressive Behavior 17: 179–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pellis, S.M. & V.C. Pellis 1992 Juvenalized play fighting in subordinate male rats.Aggressive Behavior 18: 449–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pellis, S.M., V.C. Pellis & M.M. McKenna 1993 Some subordinates are more equal than others: Play fighting amongst adult subordinate male rats.Aggressive Behavior 19: 385–393.Google Scholar
  34. Poole, T.B. & J. Fish 1975 An investigation of playful behavior inRattus norvegicus andMus musculus (Mammalia).Proceedings of Zoological Society of London 175: 61–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Poole, T.B. & J. Fish 1976 An investigation of individual, age and sexual differences in the play ofRattus norvegicus (Mammalia Rodentia).Journal of Zoological Society of London 179: 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Watson, D.M. & D.B. Croft 1993 Playfighting in captive red-necked wallabies,Macropus rufogriseus banksianus.Behaviour 126: 219–245.Google Scholar
  37. Wemmer, C. & M.J. Fleming 1974 Ontogeny of playful contact in a social mongoose, the meerkat,Suricata suricatta.American Zoologist 14: 415–426.Google Scholar
  38. Wilson, S.G. & D.G. Kleiman 1974 Eliciting play: A comparative study.American Zoologist 14: 341–370.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Ethological Society 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, School of LettersNagoya UniversityJapan

Personalised recommendations